Turner, Mark; Fauconnier, Gilles.
Conceptual integration and formal expression
Metaphor & Symbolic Activity, 1995, v10 (n3):183-204.


Proposes a model of conceptual projection across four or more mental spaces, assigning roles to 2 input spaces (source and target) and 2 middle spaces (generic and blended space) and examines the relation of conceptual blending to formal linguistic expression. In blending, structure from 2 or more input mental spaces is projected to a separate, blended space, which inherits partial structure from the inputs and has emergent structure of its own. Meaning is not compositional and blending operates to produce understandings of composite forms. Formal linguistic expression prompts hearer and reader to assemble and develop conceptual constructions, including blends with no encoding of concepts into words or decoding of words into concepts. The role of blending in many areas of cognition and action, including metaphor, counterfactuals, and conceptual change, is considered, as well as cross-space mapping of counterparts and integration of events.


Maintained by Francis F. Steen, Communication Studies, University of California Los Angeles