CogWeb's main bibliography Evolutionary Psychology on CogWeb
Cognitive Ethology
A Bibliography of Animal Cognition
Compiled by David Griffin (see Griffin 1992) and Colin Allen 
(see Allen & Bekoff 1997) up to 13 August 1997; 
see original (external).
*Added by Francis Steen; revised 20 March 2000.

Adamo, S.  A.  &  R.  T.  Hanlon 1996.  Do cuttlefish (Cephlopoda) signal their intentions to conspecifics during agonistic encounters? Anim. Behav.  52:73-81.

Akins, K. A. 1993. A bat without qualities. In Consciousness, ed. M. Davies and G. Humphreys. Blackwell.

Allen, C. 1992.  Mental Content and Evolutionary Explanation. Biology and Philosophy 7:1-12.

Allen, C. 1992a. Mental content. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 43: 537-553.

Allen, C. 1992b. Mental content and evolutionary explanation. Biology and Philosophy 7: 1-12.

Allen, C. 1995a. It isn´t what you think: A new idea about intentional causation. Nous 29: 115-126.

Allen, C. 1995b. Intentionality: Natural and artificial. In Comparative Approaches to Cognitive Science, ed. H. Roitblat and J.-A.Meyer. MIT Press.

Allen, C. 1996. Comparative psychology not folk phylogeny. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19: 122-123.

Allen, C. 1997. Animal cognition and animal minds. In Philosophy and the Sciences of the Mind, ed. P. Machamer and M. Carrier. Pittsburgh University Press.

Allen, C., & M. Bekoff (in press) Species of Mind, The philosophy and biology of cognitive ethology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Allen, C., Bekoff, M., and Grant, M. C. 1997a. Where, what, and with whom to eat? Choices made by Steller´s jays (Cyanocitta stelleri). In preparation.

Allen, C., Bekoff, M., and Wolfe, A. 1997b. Feeding rates in Steller´s jays (Cyanocitta stelleri): Effects of food type and social conditions. In preparation.

Allen, C., and Bekoff, M. 1994. Intentionality, social play, and definition. Biology and Philosophy 9: 63-74.

Allen, C., and Bekoff, M. 1995a. Function, natural design, and animal behavior: Philosophical and ethological considerations. Perspectives on Ethology 11: 1-46.

Allen, C., and Bekoff, M. 1995b. Cognitive ethology and the intentionality of animal behavior. Mind and Language 10: 313-328.

Allen, C., and Hauser, M. D. 1991. Concept attribution in nonhuman animals: Theoretical and methodological problems in ascribing complex mental processes. Philosophy of Science 58: 221-240.

Allen, C., and Hauser, M. D. 1993. Communication and cognition: Is information the connection? Philosophy of Science Association 2: 81-91.

Allen, C., and M. Bekoff  1995.  Function, natural design, and animal behavior: Philosophical and ethological considerations.  Ch. 1 (pp. 1 - 46) in Perspectives in Ethology, Vol. 11.  Eds.  N. S. Thompson. New York: Plenum.

Allen, C., and M. D. Hauser 1991.  Concept attribution in nonhuman animals: Theoretical and methodological problems in ascribing complex mental processes. Philosophy of Science 58:221-240.

Allen, C., and M. Hauser 1992.  Communication and Cognition: Is information the connection? PSA (Philosophy of Science Association) 1992: Vol. 2 pp.81-91.

Allen, C., and Saidel, E. 1997. The evolution of reference. In The Evolution of Mind, ed. D. Cummins and C. Allen. Oxford University Press.

Altmann, S. A. 1962. Social behavior of anthropoid primates: Analysis of recent concepts. In Roots of Behavior, ed. E. Bliss. Harper.

Anderson, A., B.  Holmes and L. Else 1996.  Zombies, dolphins and blindsight (summary of 2nd Tucson conference) New Scientist 4 May, 1996 pp. 20-27.

Antrobus, J.  1991.  Dreaming: Cognitive processes during cortical activation and high afferent thresholds.  Psychol. Rev.  98:96-121.  Good bibliography.

Armstrong-Buck, S. 1989.  Nonhuman experience: A Whiteheadian analysis. Process Studies 18(1):1-18.

Baars, B.J. 1997.  In the Theater of Consciousness , The Workspace of the Mind. New York: Oxford U. Press.

Baddeley, A. & L. Weiskrantz eds. 1993. Attention: Selection, Awareness, and Control.  Oxford U. Press.  Esp. Ch. 11 by Weiskrantz, L. Search for the unseen (pp. 235-45), Ch. 13 by Jacoby, L. L., D. Ste-Marie, & J. P. Toth Redefining automaticity: unconscious influences, awareness, and control.  (pp.261-82).  And Tulving, E.  Ch. 14 Varieties of consciousness and levels of awareness in memory.

Barber, T. X. 1995. The Human Nature of Birds.  New York: St. Martin's Press.

Baron-Cohen, S. 1995. Mindblindness: An Essay on Autism and Theory of Mind. MIT Press.

Barresi, J., and Moore, C. 1996. Intentional relations and social understanding. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19: 107-154.

Bateson, P. P. G. 1991. Assessment of pain in animals. Animal Behaviour 42: 827-839.

Bavidge, M & I.  Ground 1994.  Can We Understand Animal Minds? London: Bistol Classical Press.

Beck, B. B. 1982. Chimpocentrism: Bias in cognitive ethology. Journal of Human Evolution 11: 3-17.

Bednekoff, P. A., and Ritter, R. 1994. Vigilance in Nxai Pan springbok, Antidorcas marsupialis. Behavior 129: 1-11.

Beer, C. 1992. Conceptual issues in cognitive ethology. Advances in the Study of Behavior 21: 69-109.

Beer, C. 1992. Conceptual issues in cognitive ethology.  Advances in the Study of Behavior 21:69-109.

Beer, C. G. 1982. Review of Lorenz, The Foundations of Ethology. American Scientist 70: 326.

Beer, C. G. 1991. From folk psychology to cognitive ethology. In Cognitive Ethology, ed. C. Ristau. Erlbaum.

Bekoff, M. & C. Allen 1997.  Ch. 23 (pp. 313-34) in Anthropomorphism, Anecdotes and Animals.  Eds.  R. W.  Mitchell, N. M. Thompson & L. Myles.  SUNY Albany Press.

Bekoff, M. , & D. Jamieson 1996. Eds.  Readings in Animal cognition.  MIT Press. (Most chapters, but not all, are reprinted from Bekoff & Jamieson 1990)

Bekoff, M. 1972. The development of social interaction, play, and metacommunication in mammals: An ethological perspective. Quarterly Review of Biology 47: 412-434.

Bekoff, M. 1974. Social play and play-soliciting by infant canids. American Zoologist 14: 323-340.

Bekoff, M. 1975. The communication of play intention: Are play signals functional? Semiotica 15: 231-239.

Bekoff, M. 1976. Animal play: Problems and perspectives. Perspectives in Ethology 2: 165-188.

Bekoff, M. 1977a. Social communication in canids: Evidence for the evolution of a stereotyped mammalian display. Science 197: 1097-1099.

Bekoff, M. 1977b. Mammalian dispersal and the ontogeny of individual behavioral phenotypes. American Naturalist 111: 715-732.

Bekoff, M. 1978a. Behavioral development in coyotes and Eastern coyotes. In Coyotes, ed. M. Bekoff. Academic Press.

Bekoff, M. 1978b. Social play: Structure, function, and the evolution of a cooperative social behavior. In The Development of Behavior, ed. G. Burghardt and M. Bekoff. Garland.

Bekoff, M. 1992. Description and explanation: A plea for plurality. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15: 269-270.

Bekoff, M. 1993. Review of Griffin, Animal Minds. Ethology 95: 166-170.

Bekoff, M. 1994a. Cognitive ethology and the treatment of nonhuman animals: How matters of mind inform matters of welfare. Animal Welfare 3: 75-96.

Bekoff, M. 1994b But is it research? What price interdisciplinary interests. Biology and Philosophy 9: 249-251.

Bekoff, M. 1995.  Cognitive ethology and the explanation of nonhuman animal behavior. Ch. 7 (pp.119-150) in Comparative Approaches to Cognitive Science.  H. L. Roitblat and J. A. Meyer eds.  Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Bekoff, M. 1995a. Play signals as punctuation: The structure of social play in canids. Behavior 132: 419-429.

Bekoff, M. 1995b Cognitive ethology and the explanation of nonhuman animal behavior. In Comparative Approaches to Cognitive Science, ed. H. Roitblat and J.-A. Meyer. MIT Press.

Bekoff, M. 1995c. Vigilance, flock size, and flock geometry: Information gathering by western evening grosbeaks (Aves, fringillidae). Ethology 99: 150-161.

Bekoff, M. 1995d. Marking , trapping, and manipulating animals: Some methodological and ethical considerations. In Wildlife Mammals as Research Models, ed. K. Bayne and M. Kreger. Scientists' Center for Animal Welfare.

Bekoff, M. 1996. Cognitive ethology, vigilance, information gathering, and representation: Who might know what and why? Behavioral Processes 35: 225-237.

Bekoff, M., Townsend, S. E., and Jamieson, D. 1994. Beyond monkey minds: Towards a richer cognitive ethology. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17: 571-572.

Bekoff, M., and Allen, C. 1992. Intentional icons: Towards an evolutionary cognitive ethology. Ethology 91: 1-16.

Bekoff, M., and Allen, C. 1996. Cognitive ethology: Slayers, skeptics, and proponents. In Anthropomorphism, Anecdote, and Animals, ed. R. Mitchell et al. SUNY Press.

Bekoff, M., and Byers, J. A. 1981. A critical reanalysis of the ontogeny of mammalian social and locomotor play: An ethological hornet´s nest. In Behavioral Development, ed. K. Immelmann et al. Cambridge University Press.

Bekoff, M., and Jamieson, D. 1996b. Ethics and the study of carnivores: Doing science while respecting animals. In Carnivore Behavior, Ecology, and Evolution, volume 2. Cornell University Press.

Bekoff, M., and Jamieson, D., eds. 1990a. Interpretation and Explanation in the Study of Animal Behavior, volume 1: Interpretation, Intentionality, and Communication. Westview.

Bekoff, M., and Jamieson, D., eds. 1990b. Interpretation and Explanation in the Study of Animal Behavior, volume 2: Explanation, Evolution, and Adaptation. Westview.

Bekoff, M., and Jamieson, D., eds. 1996a. Readings in Animal Cognition. MIT Press.

Bekoff, M., and Scott, A. C. 1989. Aggression, dominance, and social organization in evening grosbeaks. Ethology 83: 177-194.

Berger, J. 1979. "Predator harassment" as a defensive strategy in ungulates. American Midland Naturalist 102: 197-199.

Berger, J. 1991. Pregnancy incentives, predation constraints and habitat shifts: Experimental and field evidence for wild bighorn sheep. Animal Behaviour 41: 61-77.

Bickerton, D. 1990 Language and Species.  U.  Chicago Press.  (See review by Hauser listed below.)

Block, N. 1996.  How can we find the neural correlate of consciousness? Trends in Neuroscience (TINS) 19:456-59.

Block, N., O. Flanagan & Guzeldere eds.  (In press)   The Nature of Consciousness: Philosophical and Scientific Debates.  MIT Press.

Blumberg, M., and Wasserman, E. A. 1995. Animal mind and the argument from design. American Psychologist 50: 133-144.

Blumberg, M.S. and E.A. Wasserman 1995.  Animal mind and the argument from design. Am. Psychologist 50: 133-144.  A vigorous restatement of the behaviorist view that consciousness cannot be studied scientifically; it is interesting to compare this with Wasserman 1995 (listed below) on conceptual abilities of pigeons.

Boakes, R. A. 1984. From Darwin to Behaviorism: Psychology and the Minds of Animals. Cambridge University Press.

Bogdan, R. J., ed. 1991. Belief: Form, Content and Function. Oxford University Press.

Boinski, S., & A.F. Campbell 1995.  Use of trill vocalizations to coordinate troop movement among white-faced capuchins: a second field test.  Behaviour 132: 875-901.

Boswall, J. 1977.  Tool-using by birds and related behaviour. Avicultural Magazine 83:88-97, 146-59 & 220-28 and also 84: 162-68, 1978.

Bower, G. H., and Hilgard, E. R. 1981. Theories of Learning. Fifth edition. Prentice-Hall.

Boysen, S. T. and E. J.  Capaldi eds. 1993.  The Development of Numerical Competence, Animal and Human Models.  Hillsdale NJ: Erlbaum.

Boysen, S. T., and Capaldi, E. J., eds. 1993. The Development of Numerical Competence: Animal and Human Models. Erlbaum.

Boysen, S.T. and G.G. berntson 1995.  Responses to quantity: Perceptual versus cognitive mechanisms in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) J. Exptl.  Psychol.: Animal Behavior Processes 21: 82-85.

Boysen, S.T.  And C.G. Bernston, T.A. Shreyer and M.B. Hannan 1995.  Indicating acts during counting by a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) J.Comp. Psychol. 109:47-51.

Brakke, K.E. & E.S.  Savage-Rumbaugh 1996.  The development of language skills in Pan II.  Production.  Ibid (in press).

Brakke, K.E. & E.S.  Savage-Rumbaugh  1995.  The development of language skills in bonobo and chimpanzee.  I.  Comprehension.  Language & Communication 15: 121-48.

Brentano, F. 1874. Psychologie vom empirischen Standpunkt. Leipzig.

Brown, A.  1996.  The Minds of Animals, Theoretical Foundations of Comparative Psychology. Phd.  Thesis University of Colorado, Boulder, CO.

Bullock, T.H., S. Daramursel and M.H.  Hoffman.  1993.  Interval-specific event related potentials to omitted stimuli in the electrosensory pathway in elasmobranchs: an elementary form of expectation.  J. Comp. Physiol.  A 172: 501-510.   These two papers by Bullock et al.  Show that electrical responses to an omitted stimulus in a train of stimuli can occur in portions of brains that seem unlikely to be involved in conscious decisions.

Burghardt, G. 1973. Instinct and innate behavior: Toward an ethological psychology. In The Study of Behavior, ed. J. Nevin and G. Reynolds. Scott, Foresman.

Burghardt, G. 1985. Animal awareness. American Psychologist 40: 905-919.

Burghardt, G. 1996. Play. In Encyclopedia of Comparative Psychology, ed. G. Greenberg and M. Haraway. Garland.

Burghardt, G. M.  (in press) Snake stories: From additive model to ethology's fifth aim.  In Responsible Conduct of Research in Animal Behavior.  ed. L. Hart.  Oxford University Press.

Burghardt, G.M. and D.S. Cunningham 1995.  New directions in the study of animal behavior. Pp. 71-81 in Current Issues and New Frontiers in Animal Research.  eds. K. A. L. Bayne, M. Greene & E.D.  Prentice.  Greenbelt, MD: Scientists Center for Animal Welfare.

Burghardt, G.M.  1997.  Amending Tinbergen:  A fifth aim for ethology.  Ch.  20 (pp. 354-76)  in Anthropomorphism, Anecdotes and Animals.  eds.  R. W.  Mitchell, N. S. Thompson & H. L.  Miles.  Albany,  NY:  SUNY  Press.

Burkhardt, R. W., Jr. 1981. On the emergence of ethology as a scientific discipline. Conspectus of History 1: 62-81.

Burkhardt, R. W., Jr. 1983. The development of an evolutionary ethology. In Evolution from Molecules to Men, ed. D. Bendall. Cambridge University Press.

Burkhardt, R. W., Jr. 1997. The founders of ethology and the problem of animal subjective experience. In Animal Consciousness and Animal Ethics, ed. M. Dol et al. Van Gorcum.

Burkhardt, R.W.  Jr.  1997.  The founders of ethology and the problem of animal subjective experience.  Pp.  1-13 in Animal Consciousness and Animal Ethics: Perspectives from the Netherlands.  M.  Dol, S.  Kasanmoentalib, S.  Lijmbach,  E. Rivas & R. van den Bos eds. Assen, the Netherlands: van Gorcum.

Burley, N., Krantzberg, G., and Radman, P. 1982. Influence of color-banding on the conspecific preferences of zebra finches. Animal Behaviour 30: 444-455.

Byrne, R. 1995. The Thinking Ape: Evolutionary Origins of Intelligence. Oxford University Press.

Byrne, R.  1995.  The Thinking Ape, Evolutionary Origins of Intelligence.  Oxford U. Press.

Byrne, R., and Whiten, A. 1988. Machiavellian Intelligence: Social Expertise and the Evolution of Intellect in Monkeys, Apes, and Humans. Oxford University Press.

Caine, N. G., and Marra, S. L. 1988. Vigilance and social organization in two species of primates. Animal Behaviour 36: 897-904.

Cairns-Smith, A.G.  1996.  Evolving the Mind, on the Nature of Matter and the Origin of Consciousness.  Cambridge University Press.  (reviewed by Dennett Nature 381:485-86, 1996).

Caro, T, M. 1986. The functions of stotting in Thomson´s gazelles: Some tests of the predictions. Animal Behaviour 34: 663-684.

Caro, T.M. and M.D. Hauser 1992.  Is there teaching in nonhuman animals? Quarterly review of biology.  67: 151-174.

Caudill, M. 1992. In Our Own Image: Building An Artificial Person. Oxford University Press.

Chalmers, D. J. 1996. The Conscious Mind: In Search of a Fundamental Theory. Oxford University Press.

Chalmers, D.J. 1995.  Facing up to the problem of consciousness. J. Consciousness.  Studies 2(3):  200-19.

Chalmers, D.J. 1995.  The puzzle of conscious experience. Scientific American 273 (6, December): 80-86.

Chalmers, D.J.  1996.  The conscious Mind, In Search of a Fundamental theory. Oxford U. Press. (rev by C. Koch Nature 381: 123-24, 1996 + p.97 editorial).

Cheeseman, J. and P. M. Merikle 1986.  Distinguishing conscious from unconscious perceptual processes.  Can. J. Psychol.  40: 343-367.

Chekaluk, E. & K. Hewellyn 1992.  The Role of Eye Movements in Perceptual Processes.  North Holland.

Cheney, D. L., and Seyfarth, R. M. 1986. Vocal development in vervet monkeys. Animal Behaviour 34: 1640-1658.

Cheney, D. L., and Seyfarth, R. M. 1988. Assessment of meaning and detection of unreliable signals by vervet monkeys. Animal Behaviour 36: 477-486.

Cheney, D. L., and Seyfarth, R. M. 1990. How Monkeys See the World: Inside the Mind of Another Species. University of Chicago Press.

Cheney, D. L., and Seyfarth, R. M. 1992. Précis of How Monkeys See the World. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15: 135-182.

Cheney, D.L. & R.M. Seyfarth 1992.  How Monkeys see the World.  Target article and multiple comments.  Behavioral and Brain sciences 15: 135-82.

Chisholm, R. M. 1957. Perceiving: A Philosophical Study. Cornell University Press.

Christensen, S. M., and Turner, D. R., eds. 1993. Folk Psychology and the Philosophy of Mind. Erlbaum.

Churchland, P. M. 1981. Eliminative materialism and the propositional attitudes. Journal of Philosophy 78: 67-90.

Churchland, P. M. 1995. The Engine of Reason, the Seat of the Soul: A Philosophical Journey into the Brain. MIT Press.

Clark, A. 1993. Mice, shrews, and misrepresentation. Journal of Philosophy 90: 290-310.

Clark, R.J. & R.R.  Jackson 1995.  Araneophagic jumping spiders discriminate between the draglines of familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics. Ethol., Ecol., & Evolution 7: 241-54.

Clark, R.J. & R.R.  Jackson 1995.  Dragline-mediated sex recognition in two species of jumping spiders (Araneae salticidae), Portia labiata & P. fimbriata. Ethology., Ecol., & Evolution 7: 185-90.

Clark, R.J. & R.R.  Jackson.  1994.  Self recognition in a jumping spider: portia labiata females discriminate between their own draglines and those of conspecifics. Ethol.  Ecol. & Evolution 6:371-75.

Clark, T.  1995.  Function and phenomenology: Closing the explanatory gap.  J. Consciousness Studies 2: 241-54.

Clarke, C. J. S.  The nonlocality of mind.  J. Consciousness Studies 2: 231-40.

Clayton, N.S. & A., Jolliffe 1996.  Marsh tits Parus palustris use tools to store food. Ibis 118: 554.

Colgan, P. 1989. Animal Motivation. Chapman and Hall.

Cosmides, L., and Tooby, J. 1997. In The Evolution of Mind, ed. D. Cummins and C. Allen. Oxford University Press.

Costall, a.  1993.   How Lloyd Morgan's Canon Backfired.   J. History of the Behavioral Sciences 29: 113-122.

Cowey, A. & P. Stoerig.  1995.  Blindsight in monkeys. Nature 373: 247-49.

Crick, F. 1994. The Astonishing Hypothesis: The Scientific Search for the Soul. Scribner.

Crick, F.  1994.  The Astonishing Hypotheses, The Scientific Search for the Soul. New York: Simon & Schuster

Crick, F.  and C. Koch 1995.  Are we aware of neural activity in primary visual cortex?  Nature 375: 121-23 (discussed pp. 293-95).

Crist, E.  (forthcoming) Anthropomorphism, Skepticism, and Animal Mind: The Significance of Language in Portraying Animals.   Philadelphia: Temple U. Press.

Crist, E.  1994.  Review Essay (discusses Animal Minds, Kennedy's The New Anthropomorphism and B. Noske Humans and Other Animals) (London: Pluto Press, 1989). Society and Animals 2: 77-88.

Crist, E.  1996.  Darwin's Anthropomorphism: An argument for Animal-human Continuity. Advances in Human Ecology.  5: 33-83.

Crist, E.1996. Darwin's anthropomorphism: an argument for animal-human continuity. Advances in Human Ecology 5: 33-83.

Cronin, H. 1992. Review of Griffin, Animal Minds. New York Times Book Review, November 1: 14.

Cummins, D. 1996. Evidence for the innateness of deontic reasoning. Mind and Language 11: 160-190.

Cummins, D., and Allen, C., eds. 1997. The Evolution of Mind. Oxford University Press.

Cummins, R. 1975. Functional analysis. Journal of Philosophy 72: 741-765.

Curio, E. M. 1976. The Ethology of Predation. Springer-Verlag.

Curio, E.  1993.  Proximate and developmental aspects of antipredator behavior. Advances in the Study of Behavior.  22: 135-238.

Custance, D.M., A. Whiten & K.A. bard.  1995.  Can young chimpanzees (P. tr.) Imitate arbitrary actions?  Hayes and Hayes (1952) revisited.  Behavior 132: 837-59.

Dahlbohm, B. 1993. Introduction. In Dennett and His Critics ed. B. Dahlbohm. Blackwell.

Danwisher, N., M. M. Chun, J. McDermott, & P. J. Ledden 1996.  Functional imaging of human visual recognition.  Proc.  9th Toyota Conference on Mind and Brain.  Elsevier.

Darwin, C. 1871. The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex. Reprinted by Random House (Modern Library) in 1936. (Page numbers cited are from 1936 edition.)

Darwin, C. 1872. The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. Appleton.

Darwin, C. 1896. Insectivorous Plants. Appleton.

Dasser, V.  1988.  A social concept in Java monkeys. Anim. Behav.  36: 225-30.

Davies, M. & G.W. Humphreys eds. 1993.  Consciousness, Psychological, and Philosophical Essays.  Oxford: Blackwell.

Davis, H. 1997.  Animal Cogniton Versus Animal Thinking: The Anthropomorphic Error.  Ch. 24 (pp. 335-47) in Anthropomorphism, Anecdotes and Animals.  eds. R.W. Mitchell, N.M. Thompson and L. Miles.  SUNY Albany Press.

Davis, H.  1997.  Numerical competence in animals: Life after Clever Hans.  Ch. 5 p[p. 109-15 in Boysen and Capaldi 1993.  (P. 111 criticisms of DRG's lack of definition).

Davis, H.  And D. Balfour eds.  1992.  The Inevitable Bond, Examining Scientist-Animal Interactions.  Cambridge U. Press.  Editors tend to imply bonds distort scientific rigor.  Good chapters by Pepperberg, J. Mather (octopus), Bowers and Burghardt (snakes) and Burghardt (bears).

Davis, H., and Balfour, D. eds. 1992. The Inevitable Bond: Examining Scientist-Animal Interactions. Cambridge University Press.

Davis, H., and Perusse, R. 1988. Numerical competence in animals: Definitional issues, current evidence, and a new research agenda. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11: 561-615.

Dawkins, M. S. 1993. Through Our Eyes Only? Freeman.

Dawkins, M. S. 1995. Unravelling Animal Behavior. Second edition. Wiley.

Dawkins, M.S.  1993.  Through Our Eyes Only?  The Search for Animal Consciousness.  New York: W. H.  Freeman.

Dawkins, R. 1995.  Reply to Lucy Sullivan.  Phil.  Trans Roy.  Soc.  Lond B. 349:219-24 (see Sullivan ibid. 349: 215-18).

Dawkins, R., and Krebs, J. 1978. Animal signals: Information or manipulation? In Behavioral Ecology, ed. J. Krebs and N. Davies. Sinauer.

Degler, C. N. 1991.  In Search of Human Nature, The Decline and Revival of Darwinism in American Social Thought.  New York: Oxford U. Press.  The final chapter discusses evolutionary mental continuity.

DeGrazia, D. 1996.  Taking Animals Seriously. Mental Life and Moral Status.Cambridge U. Press.

Deneubourg, J. L., and Goss, C. 1989. Collective patterns and decision making. Ethology Ecology, and Evolution 1: 295-311.

Dennett, D. C. 1969. Content and Consciousness. Routledge and Kegan Paul.

Dennett, D. C. 1983. Intentional systems in cognitive ethology: The "Panglossian paradigm" defended. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6: 343-390.

Dennett, D. C. 1987. The Intentional Stance. MIT Press.

Dennett, D. C. 1988. Quining qualia. In Consciousness in Contemporary Science, ed. A. Marcel and E. Bisiach. Oxford University Press.

Dennett, D. C. 1991. Consciousness Explained. Little, Brown.

Dennett, D. C. 1995. Darwin´s Dangerous Idea: Evolution and the Meanings of Life. Simon and Schuster.

Dennett, D. C. 1996. Kinds of Minds. Basic Books.

Dennett, D. C.  1995a.  Animal consciousness and why it matters. Social Research 62: 691-710.

Dennett, D.C.  1995b.  Do animals have beliefs?  Ch. 6 (pp.  111-118) in Comparative Approaches to Cognitive Science.  H. L.  Roitblat and J. A. Meyer eds. Cambridge, MA: MIT press.

Dennett, D.C.  1996.  Kinds of Minds.  New York: Basic Books.

Dewsbury, D. A. 1989. A brief history of the study of animal behavior in North America. Perspectives on Ethology 8: 85-122.

Dewsbury, D. A. 1990. Nikolaas Tinbergen (1907-1988). American Psychologist 45: 67-68.

Dickinson, A., and Dawson, G. R. 1988. Motivational control of instrumental performance: The role of prior experience of the reinforcer. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 40B: 113-134.

Dickinson, A., and Dawson, G. R. 1989. Incentive learning and the motivational control of instrumental performance. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 41B: 99-112.

Donald, M. 1991. Origins of the Modern Mind: Three Stages in the Evolution of Culture and Cognition. Harvard University Press.

Donald, M.  1993.  Origins of Modern Mind: Three States in the Evolution of Culture and Cognition.  Target article and multiple comments.  Behavioral and Brain Sciences.  16: 737-91.

Dretske, F. 1986. Misrepresentation. In Belief, ed. R. Bogdan. Oxford University Press.

Dretske, F. 1988. Explaining Behavior: Reasons in a World of Causes. MIT Press.

Dretske, F. 1995. Naturalizing the Mind. MIT Press.

Dretske, F.  1995.  Naturalizing the Mind.  MIT Press.

Dupont, M. 1996.  La conscience chez le chimpanzee, Approche de l'ethologie cognitive et revue des donnees empiriques.  Cahiers d'Ethologie 16:329-52.

Dusenberry, D. B. 1992. Sensory Ecology: How Organisms Acquire and Respond to Information. Freeman.

Edelman, G. M. 1992. Bright Air, Brilliant Fire: On the Matter of the Mind. Basic Books.

Edelman, G. M.  1990.  The Remembered Present: A Biological Theory of Consciousness.  New York: Basic Books.

Edelman, G.N.  1992.  Bright Air, Brilliant Fire.  New York: Basic Books

Eibl-Eibesfeldt, I. 1975. Ethology: The Biology of Behavior, second edition. Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.

Elgar, M. A. 1989. Predator vigilance and group size in mammals and birds: A critical review of the empirical evidence. Biological Reviews 64: 13-33.

Elgar, M. A., Burren, P. J., and Posen, M. 1984. Vigilance and perception of flock size in foraging house sparrows Passer domesticus L. Behavior 90: 215-223.

Emmerton, J., and Delius, J. D. 1993. Beyond sensation: Visual cognition in pigeons. In Vision, Brain, and Behavior in Birds, ed. H. Zeigler and H.-J. Bischof. MIT Press.

Enç, B. 1995. Units of behavior. Philosophy of Science 62: 523-542.

Estes, R. D. 1991. The Behavior Guide to African Mammals Including Hoofed Mammals, Carnivores, and Primates. University of California Press.

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