|Compiled by David Griffin (see Griffin
1992) and Colin Allen
(see Allen & Bekoff 1997) up to 13 August 1997;
see original (external).
*Added by Francis Steen; revised 20 March 2000.
Adamo, S. A. & R. T. Hanlon 1996. Do cuttlefish (Cephlopoda) signal their intentions to conspecifics during agonistic encounters? Anim. Behav. 52:73-81.
Akins, K. A. 1993. A bat without qualities. In Consciousness, ed. M. Davies and G. Humphreys. Blackwell.
Allen, C. 1992. Mental Content and Evolutionary Explanation. Biology and Philosophy 7:1-12.
Allen, C. 1992a. Mental content. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 43: 537-553.
Allen, C. 1992b. Mental content and evolutionary explanation. Biology and Philosophy 7: 1-12.
Allen, C. 1995a. It isn´t what you think: A new idea about intentional causation. Nous 29: 115-126.
Allen, C. 1995b. Intentionality: Natural and artificial. In Comparative Approaches to Cognitive Science, ed. H. Roitblat and J.-A.Meyer. MIT Press.
Allen, C. 1996. Comparative psychology not folk phylogeny. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19: 122-123.
Allen, C. 1997. Animal cognition and animal minds. In Philosophy and the Sciences of the Mind, ed. P. Machamer and M. Carrier. Pittsburgh University Press.
Allen, C., & M. Bekoff (in press) Species of Mind, The philosophy and biology of cognitive ethology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Allen, C., Bekoff, M., and Grant, M. C. 1997a. Where, what, and with whom to eat? Choices made by Steller´s jays (Cyanocitta stelleri). In preparation.
Allen, C., Bekoff, M., and Wolfe, A. 1997b. Feeding rates in Steller´s jays (Cyanocitta stelleri): Effects of food type and social conditions. In preparation.
Allen, C., and Bekoff, M. 1994. Intentionality, social play, and definition. Biology and Philosophy 9: 63-74.
Allen, C., and Bekoff, M. 1995a. Function, natural design, and animal behavior: Philosophical and ethological considerations. Perspectives on Ethology 11: 1-46.
Allen, C., and Bekoff, M. 1995b. Cognitive ethology and the intentionality of animal behavior. Mind and Language 10: 313-328.
Allen, C., and Hauser, M. D. 1991. Concept attribution in nonhuman animals: Theoretical and methodological problems in ascribing complex mental processes. Philosophy of Science 58: 221-240.
Allen, C., and Hauser, M. D. 1993. Communication and cognition: Is information the connection? Philosophy of Science Association 2: 81-91.
Allen, C., and M. Bekoff 1995. Function, natural design, and animal behavior: Philosophical and ethological considerations. Ch. 1 (pp. 1 - 46) in Perspectives in Ethology, Vol. 11. Eds. N. S. Thompson. New York: Plenum.
Allen, C., and M. D. Hauser 1991. Concept attribution in nonhuman animals: Theoretical and methodological problems in ascribing complex mental processes. Philosophy of Science 58:221-240.
Allen, C., and M. Hauser 1992. Communication and Cognition: Is information the connection? PSA (Philosophy of Science Association) 1992: Vol. 2 pp.81-91.
Allen, C., and Saidel, E. 1997. The evolution of reference. In The Evolution of Mind, ed. D. Cummins and C. Allen. Oxford University Press.
Altmann, S. A. 1962. Social behavior of anthropoid primates: Analysis of recent concepts. In Roots of Behavior, ed. E. Bliss. Harper.
Anderson, A., B. Holmes and L. Else 1996. Zombies, dolphins and blindsight (summary of 2nd Tucson conference) New Scientist 4 May, 1996 pp. 20-27.
Antrobus, J. 1991. Dreaming: Cognitive processes during cortical activation and high afferent thresholds. Psychol. Rev. 98:96-121. Good bibliography.
Armstrong-Buck, S. 1989. Nonhuman experience: A Whiteheadian analysis. Process Studies 18(1):1-18.
Baars, B.J. 1997. In the Theater of Consciousness , The Workspace of the Mind. New York: Oxford U. Press.
Baddeley, A. & L. Weiskrantz eds. 1993. Attention: Selection, Awareness, and Control. Oxford U. Press. Esp. Ch. 11 by Weiskrantz, L. Search for the unseen (pp. 235-45), Ch. 13 by Jacoby, L. L., D. Ste-Marie, & J. P. Toth Redefining automaticity: unconscious influences, awareness, and control. (pp.261-82). And Tulving, E. Ch. 14 Varieties of consciousness and levels of awareness in memory.
Barber, T. X. 1995. The Human Nature of Birds. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Baron-Cohen, S. 1995. Mindblindness: An Essay on Autism and Theory of Mind. MIT Press.
Barresi, J., and Moore, C. 1996. Intentional relations and social understanding. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19: 107-154.
Bateson, P. P. G. 1991. Assessment of pain in animals. Animal Behaviour 42: 827-839.
Bavidge, M & I. Ground 1994. Can We Understand Animal Minds? London: Bistol Classical Press.
Beck, B. B. 1982. Chimpocentrism: Bias in cognitive ethology. Journal of Human Evolution 11: 3-17.
Bednekoff, P. A., and Ritter, R. 1994. Vigilance in Nxai Pan springbok, Antidorcas marsupialis. Behavior 129: 1-11.
Beer, C. 1992. Conceptual issues in cognitive ethology. Advances in the Study of Behavior 21: 69-109.
Beer, C. 1992. Conceptual issues in cognitive ethology. Advances in the Study of Behavior 21:69-109.
Beer, C. G. 1982. Review of Lorenz, The Foundations of Ethology. American Scientist 70: 326.
Beer, C. G. 1991. From folk psychology to cognitive ethology. In Cognitive Ethology, ed. C. Ristau. Erlbaum.
Bekoff, M. & C. Allen 1997. Ch. 23 (pp. 313-34) in Anthropomorphism, Anecdotes and Animals. Eds. R. W. Mitchell, N. M. Thompson & L. Myles. SUNY Albany Press.
Bekoff, M. , & D. Jamieson 1996. Eds. Readings in Animal cognition. MIT Press. (Most chapters, but not all, are reprinted from Bekoff & Jamieson 1990)
Bekoff, M. 1972. The development of social interaction, play, and metacommunication in mammals: An ethological perspective. Quarterly Review of Biology 47: 412-434.
Bekoff, M. 1974. Social play and play-soliciting by infant canids. American Zoologist 14: 323-340.
Bekoff, M. 1975. The communication of play intention: Are play signals functional? Semiotica 15: 231-239.
Bekoff, M. 1976. Animal play: Problems and perspectives. Perspectives in Ethology 2: 165-188.
Bekoff, M. 1977a. Social communication in canids: Evidence for the evolution of a stereotyped mammalian display. Science 197: 1097-1099.
Bekoff, M. 1977b. Mammalian dispersal and the ontogeny of individual behavioral phenotypes. American Naturalist 111: 715-732.
Bekoff, M. 1978a. Behavioral development in coyotes and Eastern coyotes. In Coyotes, ed. M. Bekoff. Academic Press.
Bekoff, M. 1978b. Social play: Structure, function, and the evolution of a cooperative social behavior. In The Development of Behavior, ed. G. Burghardt and M. Bekoff. Garland.
Bekoff, M. 1992. Description and explanation: A plea for plurality. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15: 269-270.
Bekoff, M. 1993. Review of Griffin, Animal Minds. Ethology 95: 166-170.
Bekoff, M. 1994a. Cognitive ethology and the treatment of nonhuman animals: How matters of mind inform matters of welfare. Animal Welfare 3: 75-96.
Bekoff, M. 1994b But is it research? What price interdisciplinary interests. Biology and Philosophy 9: 249-251.
Bekoff, M. 1995. Cognitive ethology and the explanation of nonhuman animal behavior. Ch. 7 (pp.119-150) in Comparative Approaches to Cognitive Science. H. L. Roitblat and J. A. Meyer eds. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Bekoff, M. 1995a. Play signals as punctuation: The structure of social play in canids. Behavior 132: 419-429.
Bekoff, M. 1995b Cognitive ethology and the explanation of nonhuman animal behavior. In Comparative Approaches to Cognitive Science, ed. H. Roitblat and J.-A. Meyer. MIT Press.
Bekoff, M. 1995c. Vigilance, flock size, and flock geometry: Information gathering by western evening grosbeaks (Aves, fringillidae). Ethology 99: 150-161.
Bekoff, M. 1995d. Marking , trapping, and manipulating animals: Some methodological and ethical considerations. In Wildlife Mammals as Research Models, ed. K. Bayne and M. Kreger. Scientists' Center for Animal Welfare.
Bekoff, M. 1996. Cognitive ethology, vigilance, information gathering, and representation: Who might know what and why? Behavioral Processes 35: 225-237.
Bekoff, M., Townsend, S. E., and Jamieson, D. 1994. Beyond monkey minds: Towards a richer cognitive ethology. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17: 571-572.
Bekoff, M., and Allen, C. 1992. Intentional icons: Towards an evolutionary cognitive ethology. Ethology 91: 1-16.
Bekoff, M., and Allen, C. 1996. Cognitive ethology: Slayers, skeptics, and proponents. In Anthropomorphism, Anecdote, and Animals, ed. R. Mitchell et al. SUNY Press.
Bekoff, M., and Byers, J. A. 1981. A critical reanalysis of the ontogeny of mammalian social and locomotor play: An ethological hornet´s nest. In Behavioral Development, ed. K. Immelmann et al. Cambridge University Press.
Bekoff, M., and Jamieson, D. 1996b. Ethics and the study of carnivores: Doing science while respecting animals. In Carnivore Behavior, Ecology, and Evolution, volume 2. Cornell University Press.
Bekoff, M., and Jamieson, D., eds. 1990a. Interpretation and Explanation in the Study of Animal Behavior, volume 1: Interpretation, Intentionality, and Communication. Westview.
Bekoff, M., and Jamieson, D., eds. 1990b. Interpretation and Explanation in the Study of Animal Behavior, volume 2: Explanation, Evolution, and Adaptation. Westview.
Bekoff, M., and Jamieson, D., eds. 1996a. Readings in Animal Cognition. MIT Press.
Bekoff, M., and Scott, A. C. 1989. Aggression, dominance, and social organization in evening grosbeaks. Ethology 83: 177-194.
Berger, J. 1979. "Predator harassment" as a defensive strategy in ungulates. American Midland Naturalist 102: 197-199.
Berger, J. 1991. Pregnancy incentives, predation constraints and habitat shifts: Experimental and field evidence for wild bighorn sheep. Animal Behaviour 41: 61-77.
Bickerton, D. 1990 Language and Species. U. Chicago Press. (See review by Hauser listed below.)
Block, N. 1996. How can we find the neural correlate of consciousness? Trends in Neuroscience (TINS) 19:456-59.
Block, N., O. Flanagan & Guzeldere eds. (In press) The Nature of Consciousness: Philosophical and Scientific Debates. MIT Press.
Blumberg, M., and Wasserman, E. A. 1995. Animal mind and the argument from design. American Psychologist 50: 133-144.
Blumberg, M.S. and E.A. Wasserman 1995. Animal mind and the argument from design. Am. Psychologist 50: 133-144. A vigorous restatement of the behaviorist view that consciousness cannot be studied scientifically; it is interesting to compare this with Wasserman 1995 (listed below) on conceptual abilities of pigeons.
Boakes, R. A. 1984. From Darwin to Behaviorism: Psychology and the Minds of Animals. Cambridge University Press.
Bogdan, R. J., ed. 1991. Belief: Form, Content and Function. Oxford University Press.
Boinski, S., & A.F. Campbell 1995. Use of trill vocalizations to coordinate troop movement among white-faced capuchins: a second field test. Behaviour 132: 875-901.
Boswall, J. 1977. Tool-using by birds and related behaviour. Avicultural Magazine 83:88-97, 146-59 & 220-28 and also 84: 162-68, 1978.
Bower, G. H., and Hilgard, E. R. 1981. Theories of Learning. Fifth edition. Prentice-Hall.
Boysen, S. T. and E. J. Capaldi eds. 1993. The Development of Numerical Competence, Animal and Human Models. Hillsdale NJ: Erlbaum.
Boysen, S. T., and Capaldi, E. J., eds. 1993. The Development of Numerical Competence: Animal and Human Models. Erlbaum.
Boysen, S.T. and G.G. berntson 1995. Responses to quantity: Perceptual versus cognitive mechanisms in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) J. Exptl. Psychol.: Animal Behavior Processes 21: 82-85.
Boysen, S.T. And C.G. Bernston, T.A. Shreyer and M.B. Hannan 1995. Indicating acts during counting by a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) J.Comp. Psychol. 109:47-51.
Brakke, K.E. & E.S. Savage-Rumbaugh 1996. The development of language skills in Pan II. Production. Ibid (in press).
Brakke, K.E. & E.S. Savage-Rumbaugh 1995. The development of language skills in bonobo and chimpanzee. I. Comprehension. Language & Communication 15: 121-48.
Brentano, F. 1874. Psychologie vom empirischen Standpunkt. Leipzig.
Brown, A. 1996. The Minds of Animals, Theoretical Foundations of Comparative Psychology. Phd. Thesis University of Colorado, Boulder, CO.
Bullock, T.H., S. Daramursel and M.H. Hoffman. 1993. Interval-specific event related potentials to omitted stimuli in the electrosensory pathway in elasmobranchs: an elementary form of expectation. J. Comp. Physiol. A 172: 501-510. These two papers by Bullock et al. Show that electrical responses to an omitted stimulus in a train of stimuli can occur in portions of brains that seem unlikely to be involved in conscious decisions.
Burghardt, G. 1973. Instinct and innate behavior: Toward an ethological psychology. In The Study of Behavior, ed. J. Nevin and G. Reynolds. Scott, Foresman.
Burghardt, G. 1985. Animal awareness. American Psychologist 40: 905-919.
Burghardt, G. 1996. Play. In Encyclopedia of Comparative Psychology, ed. G. Greenberg and M. Haraway. Garland.
Burghardt, G. M. (in press) Snake stories: From additive model to ethology's fifth aim. In Responsible Conduct of Research in Animal Behavior. ed. L. Hart. Oxford University Press.
Burghardt, G.M. and D.S. Cunningham 1995. New directions in the study of animal behavior. Pp. 71-81 in Current Issues and New Frontiers in Animal Research. eds. K. A. L. Bayne, M. Greene & E.D. Prentice. Greenbelt, MD: Scientists Center for Animal Welfare.
Burghardt, G.M. 1997. Amending Tinbergen: A fifth aim for ethology. Ch. 20 (pp. 354-76) in Anthropomorphism, Anecdotes and Animals. eds. R. W. Mitchell, N. S. Thompson & H. L. Miles. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.
Burkhardt, R. W., Jr. 1981. On the emergence of ethology as a scientific discipline. Conspectus of History 1: 62-81.
Burkhardt, R. W., Jr. 1983. The development of an evolutionary ethology. In Evolution from Molecules to Men, ed. D. Bendall. Cambridge University Press.
Burkhardt, R. W., Jr. 1997. The founders of ethology and the problem of animal subjective experience. In Animal Consciousness and Animal Ethics, ed. M. Dol et al. Van Gorcum.
Burkhardt, R.W. Jr. 1997. The founders of ethology and the problem of animal subjective experience. Pp. 1-13 in Animal Consciousness and Animal Ethics: Perspectives from the Netherlands. M. Dol, S. Kasanmoentalib, S. Lijmbach, E. Rivas & R. van den Bos eds. Assen, the Netherlands: van Gorcum.
Burley, N., Krantzberg, G., and Radman, P. 1982. Influence of color-banding on the conspecific preferences of zebra finches. Animal Behaviour 30: 444-455.
Byrne, R. 1995. The Thinking Ape: Evolutionary Origins of Intelligence. Oxford University Press.
Byrne, R. 1995. The Thinking Ape, Evolutionary Origins of Intelligence. Oxford U. Press.
Byrne, R., and Whiten, A. 1988. Machiavellian Intelligence: Social Expertise and the Evolution of Intellect in Monkeys, Apes, and Humans. Oxford University Press.
Caine, N. G., and Marra, S. L. 1988. Vigilance and social organization in two species of primates. Animal Behaviour 36: 897-904.
Cairns-Smith, A.G. 1996. Evolving the Mind, on the Nature of Matter and the Origin of Consciousness. Cambridge University Press. (reviewed by Dennett Nature 381:485-86, 1996).
Caro, T, M. 1986. The functions of stotting in Thomson´s gazelles: Some tests of the predictions. Animal Behaviour 34: 663-684.
Caro, T.M. and M.D. Hauser 1992. Is there teaching in nonhuman animals? Quarterly review of biology. 67: 151-174.
Caudill, M. 1992. In Our Own Image: Building An Artificial Person. Oxford University Press.
Chalmers, D. J. 1996. The Conscious Mind: In Search of a Fundamental Theory. Oxford University Press.
Chalmers, D.J. 1995. Facing up to the problem of consciousness. J. Consciousness. Studies 2(3): 200-19.
Chalmers, D.J. 1995. The puzzle of conscious experience. Scientific American 273 (6, December): 80-86.
Chalmers, D.J. 1996. The conscious Mind, In Search of a Fundamental theory. Oxford U. Press. (rev by C. Koch Nature 381: 123-24, 1996 + p.97 editorial).
Cheeseman, J. and P. M. Merikle 1986. Distinguishing conscious from unconscious perceptual processes. Can. J. Psychol. 40: 343-367.
Chekaluk, E. & K. Hewellyn 1992. The Role of Eye Movements in Perceptual Processes. North Holland.
Cheney, D. L., and Seyfarth, R. M. 1986. Vocal development in vervet monkeys. Animal Behaviour 34: 1640-1658.
Cheney, D. L., and Seyfarth, R. M. 1988. Assessment of meaning and detection of unreliable signals by vervet monkeys. Animal Behaviour 36: 477-486.
Cheney, D. L., and Seyfarth, R. M. 1990. How Monkeys See the World: Inside the Mind of Another Species. University of Chicago Press.
Cheney, D. L., and Seyfarth, R. M. 1992. Précis of How Monkeys See the World. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15: 135-182.
Cheney, D.L. & R.M. Seyfarth 1992. How Monkeys see the World. Target article and multiple comments. Behavioral and Brain sciences 15: 135-82.
Chisholm, R. M. 1957. Perceiving: A Philosophical Study. Cornell University Press.
Christensen, S. M., and Turner, D. R., eds. 1993. Folk Psychology and the Philosophy of Mind. Erlbaum.
Churchland, P. M. 1981. Eliminative materialism and the propositional attitudes. Journal of Philosophy 78: 67-90.
Churchland, P. M. 1995. The Engine of Reason, the Seat of the Soul: A Philosophical Journey into the Brain. MIT Press.
Clark, A. 1993. Mice, shrews, and misrepresentation. Journal of Philosophy 90: 290-310.
Clark, R.J. & R.R. Jackson 1995. Araneophagic jumping spiders discriminate between the draglines of familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics. Ethol., Ecol., & Evolution 7: 241-54.
Clark, R.J. & R.R. Jackson 1995. Dragline-mediated sex recognition in two species of jumping spiders (Araneae salticidae), Portia labiata & P. fimbriata. Ethology., Ecol., & Evolution 7: 185-90.
Clark, R.J. & R.R. Jackson. 1994. Self recognition in a jumping spider: portia labiata females discriminate between their own draglines and those of conspecifics. Ethol. Ecol. & Evolution 6:371-75.
Clark, T. 1995. Function and phenomenology: Closing the explanatory gap. J. Consciousness Studies 2: 241-54.
Clarke, C. J. S. The nonlocality of mind. J. Consciousness Studies 2: 231-40.
Clayton, N.S. & A., Jolliffe 1996. Marsh tits Parus palustris use tools to store food. Ibis 118: 554.
Colgan, P. 1989. Animal Motivation. Chapman and Hall.
Cosmides, L., and Tooby, J. 1997. In The Evolution of Mind, ed. D. Cummins and C. Allen. Oxford University Press.
Costall, a. 1993. How Lloyd Morgan's Canon Backfired. J. History of the Behavioral Sciences 29: 113-122.
Cowey, A. & P. Stoerig. 1995. Blindsight in monkeys. Nature 373: 247-49.
Crick, F. 1994. The Astonishing Hypothesis: The Scientific Search for the Soul. Scribner.
Crick, F. 1994. The Astonishing Hypotheses, The Scientific Search for the Soul. New York: Simon & Schuster
Crick, F. and C. Koch 1995. Are we aware of neural activity in primary visual cortex? Nature 375: 121-23 (discussed pp. 293-95).
Crist, E. (forthcoming) Anthropomorphism, Skepticism, and Animal Mind: The Significance of Language in Portraying Animals. Philadelphia: Temple U. Press.
Crist, E. 1994. Review Essay (discusses Animal Minds, Kennedy's The New Anthropomorphism and B. Noske Humans and Other Animals) (London: Pluto Press, 1989). Society and Animals 2: 77-88.
Crist, E. 1996. Darwin's Anthropomorphism: An argument for Animal-human Continuity. Advances in Human Ecology. 5: 33-83.
Crist, E.1996. Darwin's anthropomorphism: an argument for animal-human continuity. Advances in Human Ecology 5: 33-83.
Cronin, H. 1992. Review of Griffin, Animal Minds. New York Times Book Review, November 1: 14.
Cummins, D. 1996. Evidence for the innateness of deontic reasoning. Mind and Language 11: 160-190.
Cummins, D., and Allen, C., eds. 1997. The Evolution of Mind. Oxford University Press.
Cummins, R. 1975. Functional analysis. Journal of Philosophy 72: 741-765.
Curio, E. M. 1976. The Ethology of Predation. Springer-Verlag.
Curio, E. 1993. Proximate and developmental aspects of antipredator behavior. Advances in the Study of Behavior. 22: 135-238.
Custance, D.M., A. Whiten & K.A. bard. 1995. Can young chimpanzees (P. tr.) Imitate arbitrary actions? Hayes and Hayes (1952) revisited. Behavior 132: 837-59.
Dahlbohm, B. 1993. Introduction. In Dennett and His Critics ed. B. Dahlbohm. Blackwell.
Danwisher, N., M. M. Chun, J. McDermott, & P. J. Ledden 1996. Functional imaging of human visual recognition. Proc. 9th Toyota Conference on Mind and Brain. Elsevier.
Darwin, C. 1871. The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex. Reprinted by Random House (Modern Library) in 1936. (Page numbers cited are from 1936 edition.)
Darwin, C. 1872. The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. Appleton.
Darwin, C. 1896. Insectivorous Plants. Appleton.
Dasser, V. 1988. A social concept in Java monkeys. Anim. Behav. 36: 225-30.
Davies, M. & G.W. Humphreys eds. 1993. Consciousness, Psychological, and Philosophical Essays. Oxford: Blackwell.
Davis, H. 1997. Animal Cogniton Versus Animal Thinking: The Anthropomorphic Error. Ch. 24 (pp. 335-47) in Anthropomorphism, Anecdotes and Animals. eds. R.W. Mitchell, N.M. Thompson and L. Miles. SUNY Albany Press.
Davis, H. 1997. Numerical competence in animals: Life after Clever Hans. Ch. 5 p[p. 109-15 in Boysen and Capaldi 1993. (P. 111 criticisms of DRG's lack of definition).
Davis, H. And D. Balfour eds. 1992. The Inevitable Bond, Examining Scientist-Animal Interactions. Cambridge U. Press. Editors tend to imply bonds distort scientific rigor. Good chapters by Pepperberg, J. Mather (octopus), Bowers and Burghardt (snakes) and Burghardt (bears).
Davis, H., and Balfour, D. eds. 1992. The Inevitable Bond: Examining Scientist-Animal Interactions. Cambridge University Press.
Davis, H., and Perusse, R. 1988. Numerical competence in animals: Definitional issues, current evidence, and a new research agenda. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11: 561-615.
Dawkins, M. S. 1993. Through Our Eyes Only? Freeman.
Dawkins, M. S. 1995. Unravelling Animal Behavior. Second edition. Wiley.
Dawkins, M.S. 1993. Through Our Eyes Only? The Search for Animal Consciousness. New York: W. H. Freeman.
Dawkins, R. 1995. Reply to Lucy Sullivan. Phil. Trans Roy. Soc. Lond B. 349:219-24 (see Sullivan ibid. 349: 215-18).
Dawkins, R., and Krebs, J. 1978. Animal signals: Information or manipulation? In Behavioral Ecology, ed. J. Krebs and N. Davies. Sinauer.
Degler, C. N. 1991. In Search of Human Nature, The Decline and Revival of Darwinism in American Social Thought. New York: Oxford U. Press. The final chapter discusses evolutionary mental continuity.
DeGrazia, D. 1996. Taking Animals Seriously. Mental Life and Moral Status.Cambridge U. Press.
Deneubourg, J. L., and Goss, C. 1989. Collective patterns and decision making. Ethology Ecology, and Evolution 1: 295-311.
Dennett, D. C. 1969. Content and Consciousness. Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Dennett, D. C. 1983. Intentional systems in cognitive ethology: The "Panglossian paradigm" defended. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6: 343-390.
Dennett, D. C. 1987. The Intentional Stance. MIT Press.
Dennett, D. C. 1988. Quining qualia. In Consciousness in Contemporary Science, ed. A. Marcel and E. Bisiach. Oxford University Press.
Dennett, D. C. 1991. Consciousness Explained. Little, Brown.
Dennett, D. C. 1995. Darwin´s Dangerous Idea: Evolution and the Meanings of Life. Simon and Schuster.
Dennett, D. C. 1996. Kinds of Minds. Basic Books.
Dennett, D. C. 1995a. Animal consciousness and why it matters. Social Research 62: 691-710.
Dennett, D.C. 1995b. Do animals have beliefs? Ch. 6 (pp. 111-118) in Comparative Approaches to Cognitive Science. H. L. Roitblat and J. A. Meyer eds. Cambridge, MA: MIT press.
Dennett, D.C. 1996. Kinds of Minds. New York: Basic Books.
Dewsbury, D. A. 1989. A brief history of the study of animal behavior in North America. Perspectives on Ethology 8: 85-122.
Dewsbury, D. A. 1990. Nikolaas Tinbergen (1907-1988). American Psychologist 45: 67-68.
Dickinson, A., and Dawson, G. R. 1988. Motivational control of instrumental performance: The role of prior experience of the reinforcer. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 40B: 113-134.
Dickinson, A., and Dawson, G. R. 1989. Incentive learning and the motivational control of instrumental performance. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 41B: 99-112.
Donald, M. 1991. Origins of the Modern Mind: Three Stages in the Evolution of Culture and Cognition. Harvard University Press.
Donald, M. 1993. Origins of Modern Mind: Three States in the Evolution of Culture and Cognition. Target article and multiple comments. Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 16: 737-91.
Dretske, F. 1986. Misrepresentation. In Belief, ed. R. Bogdan. Oxford University Press.
Dretske, F. 1988. Explaining Behavior: Reasons in a World of Causes. MIT Press.
Dretske, F. 1995. Naturalizing the Mind. MIT Press.
Dretske, F. 1995. Naturalizing the Mind. MIT Press.
Dupont, M. 1996. La conscience chez le chimpanzee, Approche de l'ethologie cognitive et revue des donnees empiriques. Cahiers d'Ethologie 16:329-52.
Dusenberry, D. B. 1992. Sensory Ecology: How Organisms Acquire and Respond to Information. Freeman.
Edelman, G. M. 1992. Bright Air, Brilliant Fire: On the Matter of the Mind. Basic Books.
Edelman, G. M. 1990. The Remembered Present: A Biological Theory of Consciousness. New York: Basic Books.
Edelman, G.N. 1992. Bright Air, Brilliant Fire. New York: Basic Books
Eibl-Eibesfeldt, I. 1975. Ethology: The Biology of Behavior, second edition. Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.
Elgar, M. A. 1989. Predator vigilance and group size in mammals and birds: A critical review of the empirical evidence. Biological Reviews 64: 13-33.
Elgar, M. A., Burren, P. J., and Posen, M. 1984. Vigilance and perception of flock size in foraging house sparrows Passer domesticus L. Behavior 90: 215-223.
Emmerton, J., and Delius, J. D. 1993. Beyond sensation: Visual cognition in pigeons. In Vision, Brain, and Behavior in Birds, ed. H. Zeigler and H.-J. Bischof. MIT Press.
Enç, B. 1995. Units of behavior. Philosophy of Science 62: 523-542.
Estes, R. D. 1991. The Behavior Guide to African Mammals Including Hoofed Mammals, Carnivores, and Primates. University of California Press.
Evans, C., and Marler, P. 1995. Language and animal communication: Parallels and contrasts. In Comparative Approaches to Cognitive Science, ed. H. Roitblat and J.-A. Meyer. MIT Press.
Fagen, R. 1981. Animal Play Behavior. Oxford University Press.
Fagen, R. 1993. Primate juveniles and primate play. In Juvenile Primates, ed. M. Pereira and L. Fairbanks. Oxford University Press.
Farah, M. J. & G. Ratcliff eds. 1994. The neuropsychology of high-level vision. Hillsdale NJ: Earlbaum.
Farthing, G. W. 1992. The Psychology of Consciousness. Prentice -Hall.
Feddersen-Petersen, D. 1991. The ontogeny of social play and agonistic behavior in selected canid species. Bonn Zoologische Beitrage 42: 97-114.
Fernald, L. D. 1984. The Hans Legacy: A Story of Science. Erlbaum.
Fiorito, G. & P. Scotto 1992. Observational learning in Octopus vulgaris. Science 256:545-47.
Fisher, J. A. 1996. The myth of anthropomorphism. In Readings in Animal Cognition, ed. M. Bekoff and D. Jamieson. MIT Press.
Fisher, J. A. 1991. Disambiguating Anthropomorphism: An interdisciplinary review. Ch. 2 pp. 49-85 in Human Understanding and Animal Awareness Eds P. P.G. Bateson and P.H. Klopfer. Perspectives in Ethology, Vol. 9. New York: Plenum.
Flanagan, O. J. 1992. Consciousness Reconsidered. MIT Press.
Flanagan, O. 1992. Consciousness reconsidered. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Flavell, J., Flavell, E., and Green, F. 1987. Young children´s knowledge about the apparent-real and pretend-real distinctions. Developmental Psychology 23, no. 6: 816-822.
Fodor, J. A. 1987. Psychosemantics: The Problem of Meaning in the Philosophy of Mind. MIT Press.
Fodor, J. A. 1994. The Elm and the Expert. MIT Press.
Fontaine, B., P.Y. Moisson & E. J. Wickings 1995. Observations of spontaneous tool making and tool use in a captive group of Western Lowland Gorillas (G. g. gorilla) Folia Primatol. 65: 219-23.
Frey, R. G. 1980. Interests and Rights: The Case against Animals. Oxford University Press.
Galef, B. G., Jr. 1996a. Tradition in animals: Field observations and laboratory analyses. In Readings in Animal Cognition, ed. M. Bekoff and D. Jamieson. MIT Press.
Galef, B. G., Jr. 1996b. Tradition and imitation in animals. In Encyclopedia of Comparative Psychology, ed. G. Greenberg and M. Haraway. Garland.
Gallup, G. G., Jr. 1970. Chimpanzees: Self-recognition. Science 167: 86-87.
Gerstner, G. E., and Fazio, V. A. 1995. Evidence of a universal perceptual unit in mammals. Ethology 101: 89-100.
Gibson, K. R. and T. Ingold (Eds.) 1993. Tools, Language and Cognition in Human Evolution. New York: Cambridge U. Press.
Givens, A. & 4 others 1995. Mapping cognitive brain function with modern high resolution electroencephalography. Trends in Neuroscience 18: 390-400, 1995.
Godfrey-Smith, P. 1988. Review of Millikan, Language, Thought, and Other Biological Categories. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 66: 25-28.
Godfrey-Smith, P. 1991. Signal, decision, action. Journal of Philosophy 91: 709-722.
Golani, I. 1992. A mobility gradient in the organization of movement: The perception of movement through symbolic language. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15: 249-308.
Goldman, A. I. 1993. The psychology of folk psychology. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16: 15-28. Also multiple comments pp29-113 and 18: 390-400, 1995.
Gopnik, A. 1993. Psychopsychology. Consciousness and Cognition 2: 264-280.
Gopnik, a. 1993. How we know our minds: The illusion of first-person knowledge of intentionality. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16: 1-14 Also multiple comments on both Goldman and Gopnick pp. 29-113 and 18: 390-400, 1995.
Gordon, D. M. 1992. Wittgenstein and ant-watching. Biology and Philosophy 7: 13-25.
Gordon, D. M., Paul, R. E., and Thorpe, K. 1993. What is the function of encounter patterns in ant colonies? Animal Behaviour 45: 1083-1100.
*Gordon, Deborah. 1999. Ants at Work: How an Insect Society is Organized. New York: The Free Press. (The significance of signs varies with contex; see pp. 97-99.)
Gould, J. L. 1986. The locale map of honey bees: Do insects have cognitive maps? Science 232: 860-863.
Gould, J. L., and Gould, C. G. 1994. The Animal Mind. Scientific American Library, W. H. Freeman.
Gould, J.L. and C. G. Gould 1988. The Honey Bee. New York: Scientific American Library.
Gould, J.L. and C.G. Gould 1994. The Animal Mind. New York: Scientific American Library, W. H. Freeman.
Gould, J.L. 1976. The dance-language controversy. Q. Rev. Biol. 51: 211-44.
Gray, J. A. 1995. The contents of consciousness: A neuropsychological conjecture. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18: 659-722 including multiple comments.
Greenfield, P. & E. S. Savage-Rumbaugh 1993. Comparing communicative competence in child and chimp: The pragmatics of repetition. J. Child Language 20:1-26.
Greenfield, S. A. 1995. Journey to the center of the mind. New York; Freeman.
Greenwood, J. D., ed. 1991. The Future of Folk Psychology: Intentionality and Cognitive Science. Cambridge University Press.
Gregory, R. L. 1986. Odd Perceptions. Methuen.
Grice, H. P. 1957. Meaning. Philosophical Review 66: 377-388.
Griffin, D. R. 1976. The Question of Animal Awareness: Evolutionary Continuity of Mental Experience. Rockefeller University Press (second edition: 1981).
Griffin, D. R. 1978. Prospects for a cognitive ethology. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4: 527-538.
Griffin, D. R. 1984. Animal Thinking. Harvard University Press.
Griffin, D. R. 1992. Animal Minds. University of Chicago Press.
Griffin, D.R. 1995. Windows on animal minds. Consc. and Cognition 4: 194-204
Grover, S. C. 1982. A re-evaluation of the introspection controversy: additional considerations. J. Gen. Psychol. 106: 205-12.
Guerin, B. and J. M. Innes 1981. Awareness of cognitive processes: Replication and revisions. J. Gen. Psychol. 104: 173-89.
Guilford, T., and Dawkins, M. S. 1991. Receiver psychology and the evolution of animal signals. Animal Behaviour 42: 1-14.
Guthrie, E. R. 1952. The Psychology of Learning. Harper.
Guzeldere, G. 1995. Problems of consciousness: A perspective on contemporary issues, current debates. J. Consciousness Studies 2: 112-43.
Hölldobler, B., and Wilson, E. O. 1990. The Ants. Harvard University Press.
Hailman, J. P. 1967. An Introduction to Animal Behavior: Ethology´s First Century. Prentice-Hall.
Hailman, J. P. 1977. Optical Signals: Animal Communication and Light. Indiana University Press.
Hameroff, S. R., Kaszniak, A. W., and Scott, A. C., eds. 1996. Toward a Science of Consciousness: The First Tucson Discussions and Debates. MIT Press.
Hammeroff, S. R. , A. W. Kaszniak & A. C. Scott eds. 1996. Toward a Science of Consciousness, The First Tucson Discussions and Debates. MIT Press. More than 50 separate chapters, ranging very widely.
Hanlon, R.T. & J. B. Messenger 1996. Cephalopod Behaviour. Cambridge U. Press.
Hardin, C. L. 1996. Color for Philosophers: Unweaving the Rainbow. Hackett.
Harman, G. 1984. Positive versus negative undermining in belief revision. Nous 18: 39-50.
Hauser, M. D. , J. Kralik, C. Botto-Mahan, M. garrett & J. Oser. 1995. Self-recognition in primates: Phylogeny and the salience of species-typical features. PNAS 92:10811-814.
Hauser, M. D. 1988. Invention and social transmission: New data from wild vervet monkeys. In Machiavellian Intelligence, ed. R. Byrne and A. Whiten. Oxford University Press.
Hauser, M. D. 1992. Review of Parker and Gibson "Language" and intelligence in monkeys and apes. Ethology 91: 81-88.
Hauser, M. D. 1993. Review of Language and Species by D.Bickerton. Animal Behaviour 46: 829-832.
Hauser, M. D., Kralik, J., Botto-Mahan, C., Garrett, M., and Oser, J. 1995. Self-recognition in primates: Phylogeny and the salience of species-typical features. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 92: 10811-10814.
Hauser, M. D., and Carey, S. 1997. Building a cognitive creature from a set of primitives: Evolutionary and developmental insights. In The Evolution of Mind, ed. D. Cummins and C. Allen. Oxford University Press.
Hauser, M. D., and Marler, P. 1993a. Food associated calls in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). I. Socioecological factors. Behavioral Ecology 4: 194-205.
Hauser, M. D., and Marler, P. 1993b. Food associated calls in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). II. Costs and benefits of call production and suppression. Behavioral Ecology 4: 206-212.
Hauser, M. D., and Nelson, D. A. 1991. "Intentional" signaling in animal communication. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 6: 186-189.
Hauser, M.D. 1996. Evolution of Communication. MIT Press.
Hearst, E. 1975. The classical-instrumental distinction: Reflexes, voluntary behavior, and categories of associative learning. In Handbook of Learning and Cognitive Processes, volume 2, ed. W. Estes. Erlbaum.
Heinrich, B. 1988. Food sharing in the common raven Corvus corax. Pp 285-311 in The Ecology of Social Behavior ed. C.N. Slobodchikoff. New York: Plenum.
Heinrich, B. 1993. A birdbrain nevermore. Natural History 101:51-56.
Heinrich, B. 1995. An experimental investigation of insight in common ravens (Corvus corax). The Auk 112: 994-1003.
Heinsohn, R., and Packer, C. 1995. Complex cooperative strategies in group-territorial African lions. Science 269: 1260-1262.
Henschel, J. R. 1995. Tool use by spiders: stone selection and placement by Corolla spiders Ariadna (Segestriidae) of the Namib Desert. Ethology 101: 187-99.
Henson, P., and Grant, T. A. 1991. The effects of human disturbance on trumpeter swan breeding behavior. Wildlife Society Bulletin 19: 248-257.
Hershberger, W. A. 1986. An approach through the looking-glass. Animal Learning and Behavior 14: 443-451.
Heyes, C. 1987a. Cognisance of consciousness in the study of animal knowledge. In Evolutionary Epistemology, ed. W. Callebaut and R. Pinxten. Reidel.
Heyes, C. 1987b. Contrasting approaches to the legitimation of intentional language within comparative psychology. Behaviorism 15: 41-50.
Heyes, C. 1993. Imitation, culture and cognition. Animal Behaviour 46: 999-1010.
Heyes, C. 1994a. Reflections on self-recognition in primates. Animal Behaviour 47: 909-919.
Heyes, C. 1994b. Social learning in animals: Categories and mechanisms. Biological Review 69: 207-231.
Heyes, C. 1994c. Social cognition in primates. In Animal Learning and Cognition, ed. N. MacIntosh. Academic.
Heyes, C. 1994d. Cues, convergence, and curmudgeon: A reply to Povinelli. Animal Behaviour 48: 242-244.
Heyes, C. M. And B. G. Galef Jr. Eds. 1996. Social Learning in Animals: The roots of Culture. New York: Academic Press. (Includes chapter by B. R. Moore).
Heyes, C. and A. Dickinson 1990. The intentionality of animals. Mind and Language 5:87-104. (See O'Leary-Hawthorne, 1993 for criticisms).
Heyes, C., and Dickinson, A. 1990. The intentionality of animal action. Mind and Language 5: 87-104.
Heyes, C., and Dickinson, A. 1995. Folk psychology won´t go away: Response to Allen and Bekoff. Mind and Language 10: 329-332.
Heyes, C.M. 1993. Anecdotes, training, trapping and triangulating: Do animals attribute mental states? Animal Behaviour 46; 177-188.
Hill, H. L., and Bekoff, M. 1977. The variability of some motor components of social play and agonistic behavior in infant Eastern coyotes Canis latrans var. Animal Behaviour 25: 907-909.
Hinde, R. A. 1970. Animal Behavior: A Synthesis of Ethology and Comparative Psychology. McGraw-Hill.
Holley, A. J. F. 1993. Do brown hares signal to foxes? Ethology 94: 21-30.
Honig, W.K. And J.G. Fetterman 1992. Cognitive Aspects of Stimulus Control. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Hopkins, W. K. and R. D. Morrris 1993. Hemispheric priming as a technique in the study of lateralized cognitive processes in chimpanzees: Some recent findings. Ch. 14 ( pp.293-309) in Language and Communication: Comparative Perspectives. Eds. H. L. Roitblat, L. M. Herman & P. E. Nachtigall. Hillsdale, NJ : Erlbaum
Huber, P. 1810. Recherches sur les moeurs des fourmis indigenes. J. J. Paschoud.
Hughes, S. 1990. Antelope activate the acacia´s alarm system. New Scientist 127, September 29: 19.
Hull, C. L. 1943. Principles of Behavior: An Introduction to Behavior Theory. Appleton-Century.
Humphrey, N. 1976. The social function of intellect. In Growing Points in Ethology, ed. P. Bateson and R. Hinde. Cambridge University Press. Reprinted in Byrne and Whiten 1988.
Humphrey, N. 1977. Review of Griffin, The Question of Animal Awareness. Animal Behaviour 25: 521-522.
Humphreys, N. 1992. A History of the Mind. New York : Simon & Schuster.
Hunt, G.R. 1996. Manufacture and use of tools by New Caledonian crows. Nature 379: 249-51 (comments ibid. Pp. 207-08).
Ingold, T. & K.R. Gibson eds. 1992. Tools, Language and Intelligence: Evolutionary Implications. Oxford U. Press.
Itakura, S. and T. Matsuzawa 1993. Acquisition of personal pronouns by a chimpanzee. Ch. 17. (Pp. 347-63) in Language and Communication: Comparative Perspectives. Eds. H. L. Roitblat, L. M. Herman & P. E. Nachtigall. Hillsdale, NJ. Erlbaum.
Jackson, F. 1986. What Mary didn't know. Journal of Philosophy 83: 291-295.
Jackson, R. R. & R. S. Wilcox 1993. Spiders flexibly chooses aggressive mimicry signal for different prey by trial and error. Behaviour 127: 21-36.
Jamieson, D., and Bekoff, M. 1993. On aims and methods of cognitive ethology. Philosophy of Science Association 2: 110-124.
Johnsgard, P. A. 1994. Arena Birds, Sexual Selection and Behavior. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.
Johnson, D. M. & C. E. Erneling eds. (In press, expected December, 1996) Reassessing the Cognitive Revolution. Oxford U. Press.
Jolly, A. 1966. Lemur social behavior and primate intelligence. Science 153: 501-506. Reprinted in Byrne and Whiten 1988.
Kamil, A. C. 1987. A synthetic approach to the study of animal intelligence. Reprinted in Behavioral Mechanisms in Evolutionary Ecology, ed. L. Real (University of Chicago Press, 1994).
Kanazawa, S. 1996. Recogniton of facial expressions in Japanese monkey ( Macaca fuscata) and humans ( Homo sapiens). Primates 37: 25-38.
Kandel, E. R., Schwartz, J. H., and Jessell, T. M. 1991. Principles of Neural Science, third edition. Elsevier.
Kennedy, J. S. 1992. The New Anthropomorphism. Cambridge University Press.
Kennedy, J. S. 1992. The New Anthropomorphism. New York: Cambridge University Press. The author disparages recent discoveries about animal mentality.
Kihlstrom, J. F. 1987. The cognitive unconscious. Science 237: 1445-52.
Kihlstrom, J. F. 1995. The rediscovery of the unconscious mind. In The Mind, the Brain, and Complex Adaptive Systems. H. Morowitz & J. Singer eds. Addison-Wesley. Vol. 22 Proc. Sante Fe Institute Studies in the sciences of Complexity.
Kimble, G. A. 1994. A new formula for behaviorism. Psychological Review 101: 254-258.
King, B. J. 1994. The Information Continuum, Evolution of social Informaiton Transfer in Monkeys, Apes, and Hominids. Sante Fe NM: School of American Research Press.
Kinkel, L. K. 1989. Lasting effects of wing tags on ring-billed gulls. Auk 106: 619-624.
Kirchner, W. H. and W. F. Towne 1994. The sensory basis of the honeybee's dance language. Scientific American June, 1994 pp. 74-80.
Klemm, W. R. 1992. Are there EEG correlates of mental states in animals? Pharmacoelectroencephalography 26: 151-165.
Kolb, F. C. & J. Braun 1995. Blindsight in normal observers. Nature 377: 336-38 (discussed ibid. Pp. 290-91).
Konorski, J., and Miller, S. 1937a. On two types of conditioned reflex. Journal of General Psychology 16: 264-272.
Konorski, J., and Miller, S. 1937b. Further remarks on two types of conditioned reflex. Journal of General Psychology 17: 405-407.
Kornblith, H. 1985. Naturalizing Epistemology. MIT Press.
Kosslyn S. M. 1994. Image and Brain, The Resolution of the Imagery Debate. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Along with a thorough review of the evidence for the reality of mental images, K. reviews recent experiments showing that when human subjects imagine a pattern very similar areas of the brain are active as when they perceive the same pattern as direct sensory stimulation.
Kosslyn, S. M. and O. Koenig 1992. Wet Mind, The New Cognitive Neuroscience. New York: Free Press.
Krebs, J. R., and Dawkins, R. 1984. Animal signals: Mind-reading and manipulation. In Behavioral Ecology, ed. J. Krebs and N. Davies. Sinauer.
Kreger, M. D., and Mench, J. A. 1995. Visitor-animal interactions at the zoo. Anthrozoös 8: 143-158.
Kripke, S. 1972. Naming and Necessity. Harvard University Press.
Krushinsky, L. V. 1990. Experimental Studies of Elementary Reasoning: Evolutionary, Physiological and Genetic Aspects of Behavior. National Library of Medicine.
Kummer, H., V. Dasser, and P. Hoyningen-Huene 1990. Exploring primate social cognition: Some critical remarks. Behaviour 112:85-98.
Laboury, M. 1996. Reflexions critiques sur la communication comme signe de la pensee. Cahiers d'Ethologie 16: 319-28.
*Langer, Ellen. 1989. Mindfulness. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Langs, R., A. F. Badalamenti & E. S. Savage-Rumbaugh 1996. Two mathematically defined expressive language structures in humans and chimpanzees. Behavioral Science. 41: 124-35.
Lazarus, J. 1990. Looking for trouble. New Scientist 125: 62-65.
Lehman, d., B. Henggler, M. Koukkan & M. Michel 1993. Source localization of brain electric field frequency bands during conscious, spontaneous visual imagery and abstract thought. Cognitive Brain Research 1: 203-20.
Lehner, P. N. 1979. Handbook of Ethological Methods. Garland.
Lehrman, D. S. 1953. A critique of Konrad Lorenz's theory of instinctive behavior. Quarterly Review of Biology 28: 337-363.
Lehrman, D. S. 1970. Semantic and conceptual issues in the nature-nurture problem. In Development and Evolution of Behavior, ed. L. Aronson et al. Freeman.
Lejeune, M. 1996. Peut-on criore en L'existence de representations mentales imagees chez les animaux? Cahiers d' Ethologie 16: 307-18.
Lennox, J. G. 1993. Darwin was a teleologist. Biol & Philos. : 409-421.
Leslie, A. M. 1987. Pretense and representation: The origins of "theory of mind. " Psychological Review 94: 412-426.
Libet, B. 1993. Neurophysiology of Consciousness. Boston: Birkhauser (mostly reprints of papers of Libet et al.).
Lima, S. L. 1987. Distance to cover, visual obstructions, and vigilance in house sparrows. Behavior 102: 231-238.
Lima, S. L. 1994. On the personal benefits of anti-predatory vigilance. Animal Behaviour 48: 734-736.
Lima, S. L. 1995a. Collective detection of predatory attack by social foragers: Fraught with ambiguity? Animal Behaviour 50: 1097-1108.
Lima, S. L. 1995b. Back to the basics of anti-predatory vigilance: The group size effect. Animal Behaviour 49: 11-20.
Lima, S. L. 1996. The influence of models on the interpretation of vigilance. In Readings in Animal Cognition, ed. M. Bekoff and D. Jamieson. MIT Press.
Lima, S. L., and Dill, L. M. 1990. Behavioral decisions made under the risk of predation: A review and prospectus. Canadian Journal of Zoology 68: 619-640.
Limongelli, L. , S. T. Boysen & E. Visalberghi 1995. Comprehension of cause-effect... in chimpanzees... J. Comp. Psychol. 109:18-26.
Lipetz, V. E., and Bekoff, M. 1980. Possible functions of predator harassment in pronghorn antelope. Journal of Mammalogy 61: 741-743.
Lipetz, V. E., and Bekoff, M. 1982. Group size and vigilance in pronghorns. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie 58: 203-216.
Llinas, R. & P. S. Churchland eds. 1996. The Mind-Brain Continuum. MIT Press. Includes chapter by J. A.Simmons on " Formation of perceptual objects... in bat sonar."
Lloyd Morgan, C. 1894. An Introduction to Comparative Psychology. Walter Scott.
Lorenz, K. Z. 1981. The Foundations of Ethology. Springer-Verlag.
Lorenz, K. Z. 1991. Here Am I--Where Are You? The Behavior of the Greylag Goose. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Lorenz, K. Z. 1996. The Natural Science of the Human Species: An Introduction to Comparative Behavioral Research. MIT Press.
Lowe, E. J. 1995. There are no easy problems of consciousness. J. Consciousness Studies 2:272-71.
Lubinski, D. & T. Thompson 1993. Species and individual differences in communication based on private states. Target article and multiple comments. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16: 627-80.
Lycan, W. G. 1987. Consciousness. MIT Press.
Lycan, W. G. 1996. Folk psychology and its discontents. In Philosophy and the Sciences of the Mind, ed. P. Machamer and M. Carrier. Pittsburgh University Press.
MacPhail, E. M. 1993. The Neuroscience of Animal Intelligence, from the Seahare to the Seahorse. New York: Columbia U. press.
Macedonia, J. M. & C. S. Evans 1993. Variation among mammalian alarm call systems and the problem of meaning in animal signals. Ethology 93:177-97.
Macedonia, J. M., and Evans, C. S. 1993. Variation among mammalian alarm call systems and the problem of meaning in animal signals. Ethology 93: 177-197.
Major, R. E. 1990. The effect of human observers on the intensity of nest predation. Ibis 132: 608-612.
Malcolm, N. 1973. Thoughtless brutes. Proceedings and Addresses of American Philosophical Association 46 (November): 5-20.
Manson, M. D. 1992. Bacteria motility and chemotaxis. Advances in Microbial Physiology 33: 277-346.
Marler, C., and Evans, P. 1995. Bird calls: Just emotional displays or something more? Ibis 138: 26-33.
Marler, P. & C. Evans. 1996. Bird calls: Just emotional displays or something more? Ibis 138: 26-33
Marler, P. 1968. Visual systems. In Animal Communications, ed. T. Sebeok. Indiana University Press.
Marler, P., Karakashian, S., and Gyger, M. 1991. Do animals have the option of withholding signals when communication is inappropriate? The audience effect. In Cognitive Ethology, ed. C. Ristau. Erlbaum.
Martin, P. R., and Bateson, P. P. G. 1993. Measuring Behavior: An Introductory Guide. Second edition. Cambridge University Press.
Martin, P., and Caro, T. M. 1985. On the functions of play and its role in behavioral development. Advances in the Study of Behavior 15: 59-103.
Masson, J. M. and S McCarthy 1995. When elephants weep. New York: Bantam Doubleday Dell.
Mather, J. 1995. Cognition in cephalopods. Advances in the Study of Behavior 24: 317-53.
Mather, J. A. 1995. Cognition in cephalopods. Advances in the Study of Behavior 24: 317-353.
McBride, G., James, J. W., and Shoffner, R. N. 1963. Social forces determining spacing and head orientation in a flock of domestic hens. Nature 197: 1272-1273.
McCauley, R. N. ed. 1996. The Churchlands and their Critics. Cambridge, MA and Oxford: Blackwell.
McFarland, D. 1989. Problems of Animal Behavior. New York: Wiley.
McFarland, D. and T. Bossem 1993. Intelligent Behavior in Animals and Robots. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
McFarland, D., and Bösser, T. 1993. Intelligent Behavior in Animals and Robots. MIT Press.
McGinn, C. 1991. The Problem of Consciousness: Essays toward a Resolution. Blackwell.
McGinn, C. 1995a. Consciousness and space. J. Consciousness Studies 2:220-30.
McGinn, C. 1995b. Animal Minds, Animal Morality. Social Research 62: 731-47.
McGrew, W.C. , L. F. Marchant & T. Nishida eds. 1996. Great Ape Societies. Cambridge U. Press.
McLean, I. G., and Rhodes, G. 1991. Enemy recognition and response in birds. Current Ornithology 8: 173-211.
McMahan, B. F. & R. M. Evans 1992. Foraging strategies of AM white pelicans. Behaviour 120: 69-89.
Meltzoff, A., and Gopnik, A. 1993. The role of imitation in understanding persons and developing a theory of mind. In Understanding Other Minds, ed. S. Baron-Cohen et al. Oxford University Press.
Metcalfe, N. B. 1984a. The effects of habitat on the vigilance of shorebirds: Is visibility important? Animal Behaviour 32: 981-985.
Metcalfe, N. B. 1984b. The effects of mixed-species flocking on the vigilance of shorebirds: Who do they trust? Animal Behaviour 32: 986-993.
Metzinger, T. ed. 199? Conscious Experience. Imprint Academic. Essays incl McGinn, Churchland, Chalmers & Dennett. Cited Nature 381: 124, 1996.
Metzinger, T., ed. 1995. Conscious Experience. Ferdinand Schoningh.
Michelsen, A., B. B. Andersen, J. Storm, W. H. Kirchner & M. Lindauer 1992. How honeybees perceive communication dances, studied by means of a mechanical model. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology 30: 143-150. This paper describes experiment in which a model bee directed recruits to test feeders primarily in the direction indicated by the model's waggle dances.
Millikan, R. G. 1984. Language, Thought, and Other Biological Categories. MIT Press.
Millikan, R. G. 1986. Thoughts without laws: Cognitive science without content. Philosophical Review 95: 47-80.
Millikan, R. G. 1989. In defense of proper functions. Philosophy of Science 56: 288-302.
Millikan, R. G. 1993. White Queen Psychology and Other Essays for Alice. MIT Press.
Millikan, R. G. 1993. White Queen Psychology and other Essays for Alice. Cambridge, MA; MIT Press.
Milner, A. D. and M. D. Rugg (Eds.) 1992. The Neuropsychology of Consciousness. New York: Academic Press.
Mitani, J. 1995. Next of Kin. Scientific American 272, June: 116-117.
Mitchell, R. W. , N. S. Thompson & H. L. Miles eds. 1997. Anthropomorphism, Anecdotes, and Animals. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.
Mitchell, R. W. 1990: A theory of play. In Interpretation and Explanation in the Study of Animal Behavior, volume I, ed. M. Bekoff and D. Jamieson. Westview.
Mitchell, R. W. 1996. The history and method of anthropomorphic analysis of anecdotes about animals and God in Western Science. In Anthropomorphism, Anecdote, and Animals, ed. R. Mitchell et al. SUNY Press.
Moore, B. R. 1992. Avian movement imitation and a new form of mimicry: Tracing the evolution of a complex form of learning. Behaviour 122: 231-63.
Moore, B.R. The evolution of imitative learning. Ch. 12 (pp. 245-65) in Heyes and Galef 1996 (see above).
Morton, A. 1996. Folk psychology is not a predictive device. Mind 105: 119-137.
Munn, C. A. 1986. The deceptive use of alarm calls by sentinel species in mixed-species flocks of neotropical birds. In Deception, ed. R. Mitchell and N. Thompson. SUNY Press.
Naatanen, R. 1992. Attention and Brain Function. Hillsdale, NJH: Erlbaum.
Nagel, T. 1974. What is it like to be a bat? Philosophical Review 83: 435-405.
Natsoulas, T. 1978. Consciousness. American Psychologist 33: 906-914.
Nelkin, N. 1993. What is consciousness? Philosophy of Science 60: 419-434.
Ng, Y-K. 1995. Towards welfare biology: evolutionary economics of animal consciousness and suffering. Biology and Philosophy. 10: 255-285.
Nicol, C. J. 1996. Farm animal cognition. Animal Sciences 62: 375-391.
Nisbett, R. E. and T. D. Wilson 1977. Telling more than we can know: Verbal reports on mental processes. Psychol. Rev. 84: 231-59.
Nunn, C. 1996. Awareness, What it is, what it does. London: Routledge.
O'Leary-Hawthorne, J. 1993. Belief and Behavior. Mind and Language 8: 461-86. Critical discussion of Heyes and Dickinson; O' L-H. Argues that beliefs are possible without language.
Osztreiher, R. 1995. Influence of the observer on the frequency of the "morning dance" in Australian babblers. Ethology 100: 320-330.
Owings, D. L. & D. Hennessy 1984. The importance of variation in sciurid visual and vocal communication. Pp. 169-200 in Biology of Ground-dwelling Squirrels: Annual Cycles, Behavior, Ecology and Sociality. J.O. Murie & G.R. Michener eds. Lincoln: U. of Nebraska Press.
Owings, D. L. & D. W. Leger 1980. Chatter vocalizations of California ground squirrels: predator-and social-role specificity. Z. f. Tierpsychol. 54: 163-84.
Packer, C. & L. Ruttan 1988. The evolution of cooperative hunting. Am. Naturalist 132: 159-98.
Packer, C., D. Scheel & A. E. Pusey 1990. Why lions forage in groups: Food is not enough. Am Naturalist 136: 1-19.
Paine, S. 1993. The World of the Sea Otter. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books.
Paller, K. A. , M. Kutas & H. K> McIsaac 1995. Monitoring conscious recollection via the electrical activity of the brain. Psychol. Sco. 6: 107-111.
Papaj, C. R. and A. C . Lewis (Eds.) 1993. Insect Learning, Ecological an Evolutionary Perspectives. New York: Chapman and Hall.
Parker, S. T., Boccia, M. L., and Mitchell, R. W., eds. 1994. Self-Awareness in Animals and Humans. Cambridge University Press.
Parker, S. T., R. W Mitchell, and M. L. Boccia (Eds.) 1994. Self-awareness in Animals and Humans, Developmental Perspectives. New York: Cambridge U. Press.
Parker, S. T., and Milbrath, C. 1994. Contributions of imitation and role-playing games to the construction of self in primates. In Self-Awareness in Animals and Humans: Developmental Perspectives, ed. S. Parker et al. Cambridge University Press.
Pearce. J. M. 1987. Introduction to Animal Cognition. Erlbaum.
Penrose, R. 1994. Shadows of the Mind: A Search for the Missing Science of Consciousness. Oxford University Press.
Pepperberg, I. M. 1987: Acquisition of the same/different concept by an African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus): Learning with respect to categories of color, shape, and material. Animal Learning and Behavior 15: 423-432.
Pepperberg, I. M. 1990. Some cognitive capacities of an African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus). Advances in the Study of Behavior 19: 357-409.
Pepperberg, I. M. 1994. Vocal learning in grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus): Effects of social interaction, reference, and context. Auk 111:300-313.
Pineau, O., Hafner, H., and Kayser, Y. 1992. Influence of capture and wing tagging on the little egret (Egretta garzetta) during the breeding season. La Terre et la Vie 47: 199-204.
Pineda, J. A. G., G. Sevestyen, and C Nava 1994. Face recognition as a function of social attention in non-human primates: an ERP study. Cognitive Brain Research 2:1-12.
Pinker, S. 1994. The Language Instinct. New York: Morrow.
Place, U. T. 1993. A radical behaviorist methodology for the empirical investigation of private events. Behavior and Philosophy 20/21: 25-35.
Popper, K. R. 1959. The Logic of Scientific Discovery. Basic Books.
Povinelli D. J. & T. M. Preuss 1995. Theory of Mind: Evolutionary history of a cognitive specializaton. Trends in Neuroscience 9: 418-24.
Povinelli, D. J. 1994a. Comparative studies of animal mental state attribution: a reply to Heyes. Animal Behaviour 48: 239-241.
Povinelli, D. J. 1994b. How to create self-recognizing gorillas (but don´t try it on macaques). In Self-Awareness in Animals and Humans, ed. S. Parker et al. Cambridge University Press.
Povinelli, D. J. 1996. Chimpanzee theory of mind? The long road to strong inference. In Theories of theories of mind, ed. P. Carruthers and P. Smith. Cambridge University Press.
Povinelli, D. J., Nelson, K. E., and Boysen, S. T. 1990. Inferences about guessing and knowing by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Journal of Comparative Psychology 105: 318-325.
Povinelli, D. J., and Cant, J. G. H. 1995. Arboreal clambering and the evolution of self-conception. Quarterly Review of Biology 70: 393-421.
Povinelli, D. J., and J. G. H. Cant 1995. Arboreal clambering and the evolution of self-conception. Quart. Rev. Biol. 70: 393-421. They claim that great apes evolved self-awareness to help judging distances and solidity of branches in tree climbing.
Povinelli, D.J. 1993. Reconstructing the Evolution of Mind. Am Psychol. 48: 493-509. Claims only in primates did "a rather profound new psychology" evolve re mental state attribution.
Prato Privide, E. M., M. Colombetti, M. Poli & C. Spada 1992. The mind of organisms: Some issues about animal cognition. Intl. J. Comparative Psychology 6: 87-100.
Premack, D. 1986. Gavagai! or the Future History of the Animal Language Controversy. MIT Press.
Premack, D. 1988. "Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind?" revisited. In Machiavellian Intelligence, ed. R. Byrne and A. Whiten. Oxford University Press.
Premack, D., and Woodruff, G. 1978. Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4: 515-526.
Purton, A. C. 1978. Ethological categories of behavior and some consequences of their conflation. Animal Behaviour 26: 653-670.
Quenette, P.-Y. 1990. Functions of vigilance behavior in mammals: A review. Acta Oecologica 11: 801-818.
Quiatt, C. & V. Reynolds 1993. Primate Behaviour. Cambridge U. Press.
Quine, W. V. O. 1953. From a Logical Point of View. Harvard University Press.
Rachels, J. 1990. Created from Animals: The Moral Implications of Darwinism. Oxford University Press.
Rachlin, H. 1991. Introduction to Modern Behaviorism, Third edition. Freeman.
Radner, D. 1994. Heterophenomenology: Learning about the Birds and the Bees. J. of Philosophy XCI (8) 389-403
Real, L. A. ed. 1994. Behavioral Mechanisms in Evolutionary Ecology. Chicago: Univ. Of Chicago Press. Chapter authors generally avoid animal consciousness.
Redpath, S. 1988. Vigilance levels in preening Dunlin Calidris alpina. Ibis 130: 555-557.
Richards, R. J. 1987. Darwin and the Emergence of Evolutionary Theories of Mind and Behavior. University of Chicago Press.
Richner, H. and P. Hebb 1995. The information center hypothesis is a flop. Advances in the Study of Behavior. 24: 1-45.
Ristau, C. 1991. Aspects of the cognitive ethology of an injury-feigning bird, the piping plover. In Cognitive Ethology, ed. C. Ristau. Erlbaum.
Ristau, C. R. (In press) Animal language and cognition projects. In Handbook of Human Symbolic Evolution. A. Lock & C. R. Peters eds. Oxford University Press.
Ristau, C. a ed. 1991. Cognitive Ethology, The Minds of Other Animal. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Especially Chs. By Ristau, Pepperberg, (Yoerg and Kamil).
Roberts, W. A., and Mazmanian, D. S. 1988. Concept learning at different levels of abstraction by pigeons, monkeys and people. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Proceedings 14: 247-260.
Robinson, D. N. 1989. Aristotle´s Psychology. Columbia University Press.
Roitblat, H. L. and J. A. Meyer eds. 1995. Comparative Approaches to Cognitive Science. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Esp. Chs. By Dennett, Bekoff, Evans and Marler, and Dyer.
Roitblat, H. L., L. M. Herman and P. E. Nachtigall (Eds.) 1993. Language and Communication: Comparative Perspectives. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Roitblat, H. L., and J.-A. Meyer, eds. 1995. Comparative Approaches to Cognitive Science. MIT Press.
Rollin, B. E. 1989. The Unheeded Cry: Animal Consciousness, Animal Pain and Science. Oxford University Press.
Rollin, B. E. 1990. How the animals lost their minds: Animal mentation and scientific ideology. In Interpretation and Explanation in the Study of Animal Behavior, volume I, ed. M. Bekoff and D. Jamieson. Westview.
Romanes, G. J. 1883. Animal Intelligence. Appleton.
Rose, L. M., and Fedigan, L. M. 1994. Vigilance in white-faced capuchins, Cebus capucinus, in Costa Rica. Animal Behaviour 49: 63-70.
Rosenberg, A. 1988. Philosophy of Social Science. Westview.
Rosenberg, A. 1990. Is there an evolutionary biology of play? In Interpretation and Explanation in the Study of Animal Behavior, volume 1, ed. M. Bekoff and D. Jamieson. Westview.
Rosenthal, D. M. ED. 1991. The Nature of Mind. New York: Oxford U. Press.
Rumbaugh, D. M., E S. Savage-Rumbaugh & R. A. Sevcik 1994. Biobehavioral roots of language, a comparative perspective of chimpanzee, child, and culture. Pp. 319-34. In Chimpanzee Culture. Eds. R. W. Wrangham, W. C. McGrew, f. B. M. de Wall & P. G. Heltne. Harvard Press.
Rumbaugh, D. M., Es. S. Savage-Rumbaugh & D. A. Washburn 1996. Toward a new outlook on primate learning and behavior: Complex learning and emergent processes in comparative perspective. Japanese Psychological Research 38: 113-25.
Russon, A. E., K. A. Bard & s. T. Parker eds. 1996. Reaching into Thought, the Minds of the Great Apes. Cambridge U. Press.
Ryle, G. 1949. The Concept of Mind. Hutchinson.
Saidel, E. J. 1992. What price neurophilosophy? Philosophy of Science Association 1: 461-468.
Savage-Rumbaugh , E. S. , S. L. Williams, T. Furuichi T. Kano 1996. Language perceived: Paniscus branches out. Ch 13 ( pp. 173084) in Great Ape Societies. Eds. W. C. McGrew, L. F. Marchant & T. Nichida. Cambridge U. Press.
Savage-Rumbaugh, , S. and R. Lewin 1994. Kanzi, The ape at the brink of the human mind. New York: Wiley.
Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S. , & D. M. Rumbaugh 1993. The emergence of language. Ch. 3 (pp, 86-108). In Tools, Language and Cognition in Human Evolution. Eds. K. R. Gibson & T. Ingold. Cambridge U. Press.
Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S. , J. Murphy, R. A. Sevcik, K. E. Brakke, S. L. Williams, and D. M Rumbaugh ( with commentary by E. Bates) 1993. Language Comprehension in Ape and Child. Monograph No. 233 of the Society for Research on Child Development, Vol. 58 (3 & $), Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S. 1990. Language as a cause-effect communication system. Philosophical Psychology 3: 55-76.
Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S. 1993. Language learnability in man, ape, and dolphin. Ch22. (Pp. 457-84) in Language and Communication: Comparative Perspectives. Eds. H. L. Roitblat, L. M. Herman & P. E. Nachtigall. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S., Williams, S. L., Furuichi, T., and Kano, T. 1996. Language perceived: Paniscus branches out. In Great Ape Societies, ed. W. McGrew et al. Cambridge University Press.
Schaller, G. B., and Lowther, G. R. 1969. The relevance of social carnivore behavior to the study of early hominids. Southwest Journal of Anthropology 25: 307-341.
Schaller, S. 1991. A Man Without Words. New York: Summit Books. Description of a man who led a thoughtful and conscious life with very limited language.
Scheel, D. 1993. Watching for lions in the grass: The usefulness of scanning and its effects during hunts. Animal Behaviour 46: 695-704.
Schupp, H. T. , W. Lutzenberger, N. Birchbaumer, W. Miltner & C. Braun 1994. Neurophysiological differences between perception and imagery. Cognitive Brain Research 2:77-86.
Schupp. H. T. , and 4 others. 1994. Neurophysiological differences between perception and imagery. Cognitive Brain Research 2:77-86.
Seager, W. 1995. Consciousness, information and panpsychism. J. Consciousness Studies 2:272-88.
Searle, J. R. 1980. Minds, brains and programs. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3: 417-424.
Searle, J. R. 1992. The Rediscovery of the Mind. Cambridge, Mass. : MIT Press
Searle, J. R. 1995. The mystery of consciousness. Reviews of recent books by Crick, Dennett, Edelman, Penrose and Rosenfeld. New York Review of Books, Part 1. Nov. 2, and a Part 2. Nov. 16, 1995; vigorous discussion between Dennett and Searle continued in Dec. 21 issue.
Seeley, T. D. 1995. The Wisdom of the Hive, The Social Physiology of Honey Bee Colonies. Harvard Univ. Press. (Reviewed Nature 380: 680-82, 1986)
Sevick, R. A. & E. S. Savage-Rumbaugh 1994. Language comprehension and use by great apes. Language and Communication 14: 37-58.
Seyfarth. R. M., Cheney, D. L., and Marler, P. 1980. Vervet monkey alarm calls: Semantic communication in a free-ranging primate. Animal Behaviour 28: 1070-1094.
Shallice, T. 1988. From Neurophysiology to Mental Structure. Cambridge University Press.
Shannon, C. E., and Weaver, W. 1949. The Mathematical Theory of Communication. University of Illinois Press.
Shapiro, L. 1992. Darwin and disjunction: Foraging theory and univocal assignments of content. Philosophy of Science Association 1: 469-480.
Shapiro, L. 1994. Behavior, ISO functionalism, and psychology. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 25: 191-209.
Shapiro, L. 1997. The Nature of Nature: Rethinking Naturalistic Theories of Thought. Manuscript, Department of Philosophy, University of Wisconsin.
Shear, J. 1995. Introduction to Explaining consciousness - The hard problem. J. Consciousness Studies 2: 194-99.
Shettleworth, S. J. 1993. Where is the comparison in comparative cognition? Alternative research programs. Psychological Science 3: 179-184.
Skinner, B. F. 1974. About Behaviorism. Knopf.
Skutch, A. F. 1996. The Minds of Birds. College Station, TX: Texas A. & M. University Press.
Slobodchikoff, C. N., J. Kiriazia, C. Fischer & E. Creef. 1991. Semantic information distinguishing individual predators in the alarm calls of Gunnison's prairie dogs. An. Behav. 42: 713-19.
Slobodichikoff, C. N. ed. 1988. The Ecology of Social Behavior. New York: Academic Press.
Smith, E. F. & D. N. Osherson eds. 1996[?] Thinking MIT Press.
Smith, J . D., J. Shull, D. A. Washburn & W. E. Shields 1994. Uncertainty monitoring in the rhesus monkey (Maccaca mulatta). Pp. 101-110 in Current Primatology, Vol. 3 Behavioral Neuroscience, Physiology and Reproduction. Eds J. R. Anderson, J-J. Roeder, B. Thierry & N. Herrenschmidt. Strasbourg: Universite Louis Pasteur.
Smith, L. D. 1986. Behaviorism and Logical Positivism: A Reassessment of the Alliance. Stanford University Press.
Smith, P. K., and Carruthers, P. 1996. Theories of Theories of Mind. Cambridge University Press.
Smith, W. J. 1977. The Behavior of Communicating: An Ethological Approach. Harvard University Press.
Snowdon, C. T. 1991. The continuing question of animal awareness (review of Ristau, 1991). Science 251:813-14.
Sober, E. 1993. Philosophy of Biology. Westview Press.
Sober, E. 1997. Morgan´s canon. In The Evolution of Mind, ed. D Cummins and C. Allen. Oxford University Press.
Squires, E. 1990. Conscious Mind in the Physical World. New York:Adam Hilfer.
Sterelny, K. 1997. Navigating the social world: Simulation versus theory. Philosophical Books XX: xxx-xxx.
Stich, S. 1983. From Folk Psychology to Cognitive Science. MIT Press.
Stich, S. 1992. What is a theory of mental representation? Mind 101: 243-61.
Stich, S. P. 1978: Beliefs and subdoxastic states. Philosophy of Science 45: 499-518.
Stich, S., and Ravenscroft, I. 1994. What is folk psychology? Cognition 50: 447-468.
Stoerig, P. & A. Cowey 1996. Visual perception and phenomenal consciousness. Ch 18 (pp. 259-78) in Hameroff, Kaszniak & Scott 1996 (see above).
Strawson, G, 1994. Mental Reality. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Strawson, G. 1994. Mental Reality. MIT Press.
Struhsaker, T. T. 1967. Auditory communication among vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops). In Social Communication among Primates Ed. S. A. Altmann. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Sullivan, K. A. 1984. Information exploitation by downy woodpeckers in mixed-species flocks. Behavior 91: 294-311.
Sullivan, L. G. 1995. Myth, metaphor and hypothesis: how anthropomorphism defeats science. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. B. 349:215-18. See reply by R. Dawkins.
Suzuki, S., S. Kuroda & T. Nishihara 1995. Tool-set for termite fishing by chimpanzees in the Ndoki Forest, Congo, Behaviour 132:219-235.
Taristano, N. S. & R. R. Jackson 1994. Jumping spiders make predatory detours requiring movement away from prey. Behaviour 131:65-73/
Tarsitano, M. S. & R. R. Jackson 1994, Jumping spiders make predatory detours requiring movement away from prey. Behaviour 131:65-73.
Taylor, C. 1966. Teleological explanations - A reply to Denis Noble. Analysis 27:141-143. Response to Noble. D. 1966. Charles Taylor on teleological explanation. Analysis 27:96-103.
Templeton, J. J., and Giraldeau, L.-A. 1995. Public information cues affect the scrounging decisions of starlings. Animal Behaviour 49: 1617-1626.
Templeton, J. J., and Giraldeau, L.-A. 1996. Vicarious sampling: the use of personal and public information by starlings foraging in a simple patchy environment. Ecology and Sociobiology 38: 105-114.
Terkel, J. 1995. Cultural transmission in the black rat: pine cone feeding. Advances in the study of Behavior 24:119-34.
Tesche, C. D. and 3 others 1995. Differences in local oscillations in cortex during imaging. Cog. Brain Res. 2:243-49.
The Churchlands. See McCauley.
Thompson, K. V. 1996. Behavioral development and play. In Wild Mammals in Captivity, ed. D. Kleiman et al. University of Chicago Press.
Thompson, R. K. R., D. L. Oden & S. T. Boysen 1997. Language-naive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) judge relations between relations in a conceptual matching- to-sample task. J. Exp. Psychol. An Behav. Proc. 33:31-43.
Thorpe, W. H. 1979. The Origins and Rise of Ethology. Praeger.
Tinbergen, E. A., and Tinbergen, N. 1972. Early childhood autism--an ethological approach. Advances in Ethology (supplement to Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie) 10: 1-53.
Tinbergen, N. 1951. The Study of Instinct. Oxford University Press (1989 edition).
Tinbergen, N. 1963. On aims and methods of ethology. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie 20: 410-433.
Tinbergen, N. 1969. Curious Naturalists. Anchor Books.
Tinbergen, N. 1972. Foreword to Hans Kruuk, The Spotted Hyena. University of Chicago Press.
Tinklepaugh, O. L. 1928. An experimental study of representative factors in monkeys. Journal of Comparative Psychology 8: 197-236.
Toates, F. 1995. Animal motivation and cognition. In Comparative Approaches to Cognitive Science, ed. H. Roitblat and J.-A. Meyer. MIT Press.
Tolman, E. C. 1951. Purposive Behavior in Animals and Men. Irvington.
Tomasello, M. E., E. S. Savage-Rumbaugh & A. C. Kruger 1993. Imitative learning of actions on objects by children, chimpanzees, and enculturated chimpanzees. Child Development 64:1688-1705.
Tomasello, M., B. L. George, A. C. Kruger, M. Jeffry, and F. A. Evans. 1985. The development of gestural communication in young chimpanzees. Journal of Human Evolution 14: 175-186.
Tomasello, M., D. Gust, and G. T. Frost. 1989. A longitudinal investigation of gestural communication in young chimpanzees. Primates 30: 35-50.
Tootell, R. B. H. et al. 1996. New images from human visual cortex. TINS 19:481-89.
Toth, N., K. D. Schick, E. S. Savage-Rumbaugh, R. A. Sevcik & D. M. Rumbaugh 1993. Pan the tool-maker: Investigations into the stone tool-making and tool-using capabilities of a bonobo (Pan paniscus). J. Archaeological Science 20:81-91.
Treves, A. 1997. The influence of group size and near neighbors on vigilance in two species of arboreal monkeys. Behaviour XX: xxx-zzz.
Triesman, M. 1975a. Predation and the evolution of gregariousness. I. Models for concealment and evasion. Animal Behaviour 23: 779-800.
Triesman, M. 1975b. Predation and the evolution of gregariousness. II. An economic model for predator-prey interactions. Animal Behaviour 23: 801-825.
Tullock, G. 1994. The Economics of Nonhuman Societies. Tucson AZ:Pallas Press.
Tyack, P. 1995. Animal language research needs a broader comparative and evolutionary framework. In Language and Communication: Comparative Perspectives. eds. H. L. Roitblat, L. M. Herman and P. E. Nachtigall. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Tyden, H. 1997. Lily pond, Four years with a family of beavers. New York: Lyons & Burford reprint.
Tye, M. 1992. Naturalism and the mental. Mind 101: 421-441.
Tye, M. 1995. Ten Problems of Consciousness: A Representational Theory of the Phenomenal Mind. MIT Press.
Tye, M. 1995. Ten Problems of Consciousness, A Representational Theory of the Phenomenal Mind. MIT Press.
Van Eerden, M. R. & B. Vollamber 1995. Mass fishing by cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis at Lake Ijsselmeer, The Netherlands: A recent and successful adaptation to a turbid environment. Ardea 83:199-212.
van Valen, L. M. 1996. On interdisciplinary and such. Biology and Philosophy 11: 255-257.
van den Bos, R. 1997. Reflections on the organisation of mind, brain and behavior. In Animal Consciousness and Animal Ethics, ed. M. Dol et al. Van Gorcum.
Vauclair, J. 1996. Animal Cognition: An Introduction to Modern Comparative Psychology. Harvard University Press.
Vauclair, J. 1996. Animal Cognition, An Introduction to Modern Comparative Psychology. Harvard U. Press.
Velmans, M. 1991. Is human information processing conscious? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14:651-726 (including multiple commentaries)
Velmans, M. ed. 1996. The Science of Consciousness, Psychological, Neuropsychological and Clinical Reviews. London: Routledge.
Visalberghi, E., D. M. Fragaszy & E. S. Savage-Rumbaugh 1995. Performance in a tool-using task by common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), bonobos (Pan paniscus) and orangutan (Pongo pygnaeus) and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) J. Comp. Psychol. 109:52-60.
Von Eckardt, B. 1993. What Is Cognitive Science? MIT Press.
von Uexküll, J. 1909. Umwelt und Innenwelt der Tiere. Springer-Verlag. Excerpted in Foundations of Comparative Ethology, ed. G. Burghardt (Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1985).
Voslamber, B., M. Platteeuw & M.R. VanEerden 1995. Solitary foraging in sand pits by breeding cormorants Pjalocrocorax carbo sinensis: Does specialized knowledge about fishing sites and fish behaviour pay off? Ardea 83: 213-222.
Waal, F. M. de 1996. Good Natured, The Origins of Right and Wrong in Humans and Animals. Harvard U. Press.
Waal, F. M. de 1997 Bonobos: The Forgotten Ape. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Waal, F.M. de 1991. Complementary methods and convergent evidence in the study of primate social cognition. Behaviour 118:297-320.
Wallman, J. 1992. Aping Language. New York: Columbia University Press.
Warburton, K., and Lazarus, J. 1991. Tendency-distance models of social cohesion in animal groups. Journal of Theoretical Biology 150: 473-488.
Wasserman, E. A. 1995. The conceptual abilities of pigeons. American Scientist 83 (3)246-255.
Wasserman, E. A. 1997. The science of animal cognition: Past, present and future. J. Exptl. Psychol., An. Behav Proc. 23:123-36.
Watanabe, S., Lea, S. E. G., and Dittrich, W. H. 1993. What can we learn from experiments on pigeon concept discrimination? In Vision, Brain, and Behavior in Birds, ed. H. Zeigler and H.-J. Bischof. MIT Press.
Watson, D. M., and Croft, D. B. 1996. Age-related differences in playfighting strategies of captive male red-necked wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus banksianus). Ethology 102: 336-346.
Watson, J. B. 1930. Behaviorism. Norton.
Weiskrantz, L. 1995. The problem of consciousness in relation to neuropsychology. Beh. Brain Research 71:171-75.
Wenner, A. M. and P. H. Wells 1990. Anatomy of a Controversy: The Question of "Language" among Bees. New York: Columbia University Press. The authors argue that bees do not act on the information about distance and direction in the waggle dances, but find flowers solely by searching for odors transferred by the dancer. Most biologists, however, agree that while bees must search at short range for odors they do use the dance information to reach the approximate location of distant goals. For example, see reviews by Seeley in Nature 349:114, 1991, by Z. Faulkes Animal Behaviour 47:1241 and by F. C. Dyer and B. H. Smith in Animal Behaviour 47:1242-44, 1994, as well as the Michelsen, A. et al. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 30:143-150, 1992.
Westergaard, G. C. & S. J. Suomi 1995. Stone-throwing by capuchins (Cebus apella): A model of throwing capabilities in Homo habilis. Folia Primatol. 65:234-38
Whiten, A. & R. Ham 1992. On the nature & evolution of imitation in the Animal Kingdom: Reappraisal of a century of research. Adv. In the Study of Behavior 21:239-83.
Whiten, A., and R. Ham 1992. On the nature and evolution of imitation in the animal kingdom: Reappraisal of a century of research. Advances in the Study of Behavior 21: 239-283.
Wicksten, M. 1980. Decorator crabs. Scientific American 242: 146-154.
Wilder, H. 1996. Interpretive cognitive ethology. In Readings in Animal Cognition, ed. M. Bekoff and D. Jamieson. MIT Press.
Wilkes, K. 1984. Is consciousness important? British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 35: 223-243.
Wilkes, K. 1995. Losing consciousness. In Conscious Experience, ed. T. Metzinger. Ferdinand Schoningh.
Williams, G. C. 1992. Natural Selection: Domains, Levels, and Challenges. Oxford University Press.
Wilson, R. P., Culik, B., Danfeld, R., and Adelung, D. 1991. People in Antarctica--how much do Adélie penguins Pygoscelis adeliae care? Polar Biology 11: 363-370.
Wittgenstein, L. 1953. Philosophical Investigations. Macmillan.
Yäber, M. C., and Herrera, E. A. 1994. Vigilance, group size and social status in capybaras. Animal Behaviour 48: 1301-1307.
Yoerg, S. I. 1991. Ecological frames of mind: The role of cognition in behavioral ecology. Quarterly Review of Biology 66: 287-301.
Yoerg, S. I., and Kamil, A. C. 1991. Integrating cognitive ethology
with cognitive psychology. In Cognitive Ethology, ed. C. Ristau.
Francis F. Steen, Communication Studies, University of California, Los Angeles