Spelke on object perception
The Theory of Mind
Modes of Construal
The Objective and the Biological 
(revised November 4, 1997)

Mode of Construal 
Proper Domain 
inert rigid objects 
living kinds 
Perceptual Cues 
solid, does not move on its own
non-random design, self-propelled 
(cf. Decision Tree
Inferential Properties 
material cause: inert substance 
material cause: organic substance 
efficient cause: external energy 
efficient cause: its own energy 
no formal cause
formal cause:  inherent design
no final cause (telos, purpose) 
final cause (goals, purposes) 
only local (surface) action 
action at a distance (informational) 
no hidden internal structure 
hidden internal structure 
no essence 
invisible essence
no autonomous source of action 
autonomous source of action 
no new constitutive information 
new constitutive information 
finite number of variables 
infinite number of variables 
no hierarchical orderings 
hierarchical classifications 
no ethical value 
ethical value 
formal cause imparted
formal cause inherent
final cause attributed
final cause inherent
global laws and truths
local laws and truths 
finite number of variables 
infinite number of variables
axiomatic systems
generative systems 
no new constitutive information
new constitutive information

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© 1997 Francis F. Steen, Communication Studies, University of California, Los Angeles