NTPN's "Eurocentric Timeline"
by Gerald Murphy
 Chumash index   |  CogWeb

TIMELINE   Some historical events, chosen at random:

DATE                                  EVENT
30KBC (or earlier) Probable crossing of Bering Straits by Indian ancestors
    61  Spinden date for the Leyden Plate, a carved jade plaque in Mexico
    68  Spinden date for oldest stone monument or stela, in Mexico
  217  Year of oldest Pueblo roofbeam that can be carbon-14 dated
  400  Heyday of the Moundbuilders in Mississippi and Ohio valleys
  725  Casa Grande, an Indian fort and large irrigation works built - Arizona
  850  Norsemen defeat Irishmen, eject them from Iceland
  985  Eric the Red colonizes Greenland
1000  Leif, Eric's son, builds dwelling on NE coast of Newfoundland
1000  Tiahuanaco civilization in Peru, widespread planting of potatoes, corn
1056  Beginning of the democratic Pataria movement in Milan
1100  Mayan civilization reaches it's height in Central America
1215  King John seals Magna Carta at Runnymede.  But not made law until 1297
1225  Magna Carta reissued for third time in definitive form
1254  Birth of Marco Polo, explorer who will bring pasta to Italy from China
1265  First English Parliament, January 20
1297  Magna Carta confirmed by Edward I, enters English statute rolls as law
1325  Toltec empire defeated by Aztecs in Mexico
1327  Aztecs establish Mexico City
1332  Parliament divides into two houses
1347  Bubonic plague in Europe; originated in India, 1332. 75 million deaths
1350  The League of Nations established at Onondaga, NY. 1st true democracy
1364  Aztecs build their capital at Tenochtitlan, Mexico
1438  Inca rule begins in Peru
1441  Portugese sailors enter slave trade with African Negroes at Cape Blanc
1451  Birth of Cristoforo Columbo; dies 1506
1454  Birth of Amerigo Vespucci; dies 1512
1492  Columbus departs Palos, Spain, in Santa Maria.  Hopes to find gold/Indies
1494  Spain and Portugal divide New World in Treaty of Tordesillas
1497  John Cabot makes landfall in Newfoundland, claims it for England
1498  Cabots explore as far south as Hatteras; claim continent for England
1499  Ojeda explores Venezuelan coastline
1500  Fernandes explores Labrador
1500  Pedro Alvarez Cabral claims Brazil for Portugal
1501  Gaspar Corte-Real kidnaps 57 Indians in Newfoundland
1501  Rodrigo de Bastidas explores Central American coast & Caribbean
1507  Lands of the New World named for Amerigo Vespucci by Waldseemuller
1510  Spain begins settlements in Jamaica; two years later in Cuba
1512  Juan Ponce de Leon names discovery after Easter Sunday; Pascua Florida
1513  Vasco Nunez de Balboa names large body of water as "Pacific"
1519  Hernando Cortes begins assault on Mexico, defeats the Aztecs
1519  Cortes brings Arabian horses to Americas from Spain
1519  Domenico de Pineda explores Gulf of Mexico from Florida to Vera Cruz
1520  Magellan navigates through the straits from Atlantic to Pacific
1521  Martin Luther excommunicated from the Roman Catholic Church, Jan 3
1521  Guam, where America's day begins, explored by Magellan
1524  Giovanni da Verrazano explores Hudson River and New York harbor waters
1526  Spanish attempt colonization of Cape Fear; it lasts only a few months
1528  Panfilo de Narvaez invades Florida from Cuba, wars with Indians
1531  Spain invades Peru; end of Inca civilization
1534  Jacques Cartier explores coasts of Labrador and Newfoundland
1535  Jacques Cartier explores St. Lawrence River, trades with Huron Indians
1536  Pedro de Mendoza founds Buenos Aries
1536  Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca reaches Culiacan after roaming all over south
1538  Bogota settled by Quesada
1539  Hernando de Soto leaves Havana to find Seven Cities; finds Indian war
1539  First printing press set up in the New World - at Mexico City
1540  Francisco Vasquez de Coronado treks north from Mexico to Zuni territory
1540  Coronado's troops discover the Grand Canyon
1541  Hernando de Soto explores Mississipi River valley and Gulf Coast
1542  Juan Rodriguez Cabrilho explores in area of San Diego for Spain
1544  Sebastian Cabot publishes map of the world with remarkable detail
1555  First tobacco taken from America to Spain
1555  Rio de Janeiro colony established by the French
1558  Reign of Elizabeth I begins; ends in 1603
1562  French establish trading post in South Carolina, erect monument in FL
1562  John Hawkins begins slave trade between Guinea and West Indies
1564  French Huguenots try to start colony at Jacksonville; are killed by Spain
1564  French found Fort Caroline, FL.  First European colony on the mainland
1565  Spanish attack Fort Caroline, and find St. Augustine in the process
1572  Francis Drake attacks Spanish harbors in the Americas
1576  Martin Frobisher puts his name on Frobisher's Bay, Canada
1577  Sir Francis Drake begins explorations on west coast of North America
1581  Franciscan friars begin missionary work in "New Mexico"
1584  Walter Raleigh knighted by Virgin Queen for naming new colony for her
1585  English attempt colony at Roanoke Island, NC, but have Indian trouble
1586  Potatoes from Columbia introduced to England by Herriot
1587  New colony established at Pamlico Sound.  It disappeared within 2 yrs
1587  Virginia Dare was first child born in the colonies; fate unknown
1588  English defeat Spanish armada of King Philip II
1590  Galileo describes the law of falling bodies
1592  Alleged date of Juan de Fuca discovery of inland passage
1598  Colonists landed on Sable Island
1598  Henry IV issues Edict of Nantes to quiet religious wars
1598  Don Juan de Onate claims all of New Mexico for Spain
1601  Colony of Tadoussac founded
1602  Cape Cod named by Bartholemew Gosnold, English navigator who found it
1602  Vizcaino explores west coast from Gosnold to Buzzards Bay
1603  Martin Pring explores New England coast
1605  French trading post established at Port Royal, Nova Scotia
1605  Weymouth explores New England coast
1606  First charter granted to the Virginia Company, named after Virgin Queen
1607  Captain John Smith first encounters Iroquois in Chesapeake Bay
1607  Jamestown founded.  First permanent English colony in New World
1607  English colony begun at Fort St. George, on Kennebec River, Maine
1608  Samuel de Champlain founds village of Quebec
1609  Champlain makes war against the Iroquois, 1st use of guns on Indians
1609  Hendrik "Henry" Hudson explores river valley named for him
1609  East Anglia Puritans leave England for Leiden, Holland for 10 year stay
1609  Dutch establish Fort Orange, now known as Albany, NY, as fur trading post
1609  Henry Hudson explores east coast of North America for Netherlands
1609  Santa Fe, New Mexico settled
1609  Kepler describes planetary motions and laws
1610  Henry Hudson discovers Hudson's Bay
1610  Thomas West, 3rd Lord de la Warr rescues Jamestown colony from starvation
1612  England colonizes Bermuda
1612  French explorers discover Lake Huron
1613  John Rolfe, husband of Pocahontas, cross-breeds tobacco successfully
1614  Thomas Hunt kidnaps 24 Indians from Cape Cod area, sells them as slaves
1615  French under Champlain trade with local Indians on Georgian Bay
1616  Captain John Smith publishes "A Description of New England"
1616  Pocahontas visits England, poses for portrait; dies there
1616  White settlers introduce small pox to New England.  Many Indians die
1619  Black slavery introduced at Jamestown by Dutch traders
1619  First legislative assembly in America, in Virginia, July 30
1620  Slide rule invented by Oughtred, in England
1620  Puritan Pilgrims write Mayflower Compact, land at Plymouth Colony
1621  Pilgrims have first contact with Indian, who greets them in English!
1621  The Indian, Squanto, learned English in England after fleeing Spain
1622  Maine granted to Sir Ferdinando Gorges and Captain John Mason
1623  Champlain's expedition trades for furs with Indians on Lake Superior
1623  Settlements begin in New Hampshire
1624  Indians barter away Manhattan for about $24.00; Dutch begin settlements
1624  Virginia becomes a royal colony
1628  English Parliament enacts Petition of Right
1629  Charter of Freedoms and Exemptions for New Netherland granted
1629  Puritans settle Boston area, call themselves The Massachusetts-Bay Co.
1630  Puritans hang John Billington, a murderer; a first for the colony
1632  Mariland named for Queen Henrietta Maria by English King Charles I
1632  "Oyster War" begins between VA and MD; continues today
1634  Jean Nicolet explores Lake Michigan shore and Wisconsin
1635  Roger Williams banished from Massachusetts for espousing democracy
1635  First settlements in Connecticut include Hartford and Windsor
1636  First college in the colonies, later named after Rev. John Harvard
1636  Providence Plantations founded in Rhode Island by Roger Williams
1637  Pequot War in Connecticut and Rhode Island
1638  Swedish colony, near Wilmington, DE, introduces log-cabin building
1639  The Fundamental Orders unite three communities in "Connectecotte"
1639  Harvard College sets up first printing press in colonies
1640  First English book published in colonies is Bay Psalm Book; Cambridge
1641  "Body of Liberties" adopted in Massachusetts; precurses Bill of Rights
1642  Pascal invents an adding machine
1642  Massachusetts School Law requires schoolmaster in towns of 50 families
1642  French develop new trading post at Montreal
1643  Invention of the barometer
1643  New England Confederation founded.  These are first 4 colonies to unite
1644  First bicameral legislature formed in Massachusetts
1644  Roger Williams publishes The Bloody Tenet of Persecution
1645  First ironworks, at Saugus, MA
1648  Iroquois defeat the Hurons, drive them into Canada, north of the Lakes
1649  Charles I executed; Oliver Cromwell establishes Commonwealth
1649  First Assembly in Maryland.  Enacts Toleration Act, freeing religion
1651  Navigation Acts require English ships and crews for all imports
1653  Iroquois defeat the Erie Nation, extend influence into o-he-you. (Ohio)
1656  New Netherland Council passes ordinance restricting religion
1657  Rhode Island Assembly adopts freedom of religion; it doesn't last
1657  John Washington jumps ship in Virginia, buys land
1658  Birth of Antoine de la Mothe, sieur de Cadillac; he dies in 1730
1661  William Penn deceives Delaware Indians, effectively steals Pennsylvania
1663  John Eliot translates Bible into an Indian tongue
1664  Dutch give up control of New Amsterdam
1665  Duke's Law established by Duke of York, who renames area for himself
1668  Sault Ste. Marie established by French missionaries
1669  Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle explores Ohio River valley
1669  Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina inaugurated
1670  Newton gives the world The Calculus
1670  Grant from Charles II leads to settlement of Charleston, SC
1670  Hudson's Bay Company founded to compete with French fur traders
1673  Iroquois drive Mosopelea Indians from Southwestern Ohio
1673  Marquette and Joliet explore northern parts of Mississippi valley
1675  Indian "King Phillip" begins retaliatory war against white invaders
1676  Bacon's Rebellion wages vigilante war in Virginia
1676  First formally declared "Day of Thanksgiving" June 20, Charlestown, MA
1679  Settlements in what is now New Hampshire proclaimed a royal colony
1679  Habeas Corpus Amendment Act in England
1680  Pueblo Indians get horses from Spanish; first Plains Indians to do so
1681  Province of Pennsylvania (Penn's Woodlands) chartered
1682  Philadelphia founded.  Penn publishes Frame of Government
1682  LaSalle explores Mississippi River, claims river valley for France
1684  Charles II annuls 1629 charter of Massachusetts colony
1684  Cotton Mather coins the term "Americans" for colonists
1684  A patent is granted for the thimble
1685  Louis XIV cancels Edict of Nantes, thousands flee to the colonies
1688  First written protest against slavery, by Mennonites in Germantown, PA
1688  The Glorious Revolution establishes Parliamentary supremacy
1689  English Parliament enacts Bill of Rights, provides religious freedom
1689  Pensacola founded (again). (Spanish had tried there in 1559)
1690  First newspaper banned in the colonies is Publick Occurences, in Boston
1691  Plymouth becomes part of royal colony of Massachusetts
1692  Witch hunts in Salem, MA; 19 die
1693  William and Mary becomes second college in the colonies, Feb 6
1693  Champagne is invented by Dom Perignon, August 4
1695  Freedom of the press comes to England.  Censorship abolished
1696  Habeas Corpus Act suspended in England
1696  Board of Trade takes over administration of the colonies
1697  Penn proposes a Plan of Union for the English Colonies in America
1699  Woolens Act.
1699  Cahokia and Biloxi founded
1701  Cadillac establishes new trading post; call it "Ponchartrain" on de Troit
1701  Elihu Yale donates 800 Pounds to the third college in the colonies
1701  Delaware gets government separate from Pennsylvania
1702  East Jersey and West Jersey unite to form royal province of New Jersey
1702  Queen Anne begins reign; dies 1714.  Annapolis is named for her
1703  Benjamin Franklin born in Boston
1704  First organ built in the colonies, in Philadelphia
1707  Scotland and England join to become Great Britain
1709  First Copyright Act, in Britain
1711  War with Tuscarora Indians in Carolinas, they head north
1712  North Carolina gets own governor, separates from South Carolina
1713  Treaty of Utrecht; French Acadians (Cajuns) driven from Nova Scotia to LA
1714  Shawnee establish themselves in western Ohio, driven there from MD
1715  Tuscarora Indians join League of Five Nations, making it Six Nations
1716  First theater in the colonies is at Williamsburg
1717  Mother Goose appears in print, in Boston
1718  New Orleans founded by Le Page du Pratz, for Bienville
1720  Birth of Ottawa Indian war chief Pontiac, near Detroit
1720  First settlements in Vermont
1721  Dr. Zabdiel Boylston imports smallpox vaccine, in Boston
1723  Benjamin Franklin leaves Boston for Philadelphia
1727  First British fort on Great Lakes is Fort Oswego, NY
1728  Vitus J. Bering, a Dane, explores strait which now bears his name
1728  First American steel made in Hartford, CT
1732  Benjamin Franklin begins to publish Poor Richard's Almanac
1732  George Washington born in Virginia on February 22;  dies in 1799
1732  Hat Act forbade manufacture in colonies of hats made with local fur
1732  First stagecoach route connects Burlington to Perth Amboy, NJ
1733  Sugar Act, aka Molasses Act, a revenue enhancement scheme for Britain
1733  Georgia becomes 13th colony; founded by James Oglethorpe
1734  Hamilton defends Zenger in freedom of the press landmark case
1735  John Adams, 2nd President, born October 30; dies July 4, 1826
1736  Patrick Henry born May 29
1736  Franklin begins Fire Department in Philadelphia
1737  John Hancock born January 23
1738  The Great Awakening in full swing reshaping religious policies everywhere
1738  British traders begin working shores of Lake Erie, compete with French
1738  Future King George III born.  Declaration of Independence mentions him
1739  In North Carolina, there is large insurrection by blacks
1739  War of Jenkin's Ear begins
1740  English Parliament allows naturalization of colonists after 7 years
1740  Invention of the Franklin stove, his most famous invention
1740  Philadelphia is largest city in America.  Population 13,000
1741  Vitus Bering claims Alaska for his (now) homeland Russia
1743  Thomas Jefferson, 3rd President, born April 13;  dies July 4, 1826
1743  American Philosophical Society founded by Benjamin Franklin
1744  King George's War begins.  France joins war effort against England
1746  College of New Jersey, now called Princeton Univ., founded
1747  New York State Bar Association is first in this continent
1748  "Now I Lay Me Down to Sleep" appears in New England Primer
1748  Treaty of Aix-La-Chapelle ends King George's War
1749  England recognizes slavery and plantation system in the south
1749  George Washington becomes land surveyor at age 17, for an Ohio company
1749  Halifax, Nova Scotia founded
1750  Cumberland Gap discovered, named by Thomas Walker.  Westward ho begins
1750  First American coal mine opens in Virginia
1750  Iron Act encourages colonial pig iron, forbids colonial steel tools
1751  James Madison, father of our Constitution & 4th President, born. d.1836
1751  Liberty Bell ordered from England. 50th anniversary Charter of Privs
1752  Benjamin Franklin goes out to "fly a kite".  A shocking experience!
1752  Franklin invents the lightning rod based on his electrical experiments
1752  First general hospital opens in Philadelphia
1753  George Washington explores western Pa; delivers ultimatum to French
1754  Benjamin Franklin's Albany Plan of Union remarks on Iroquoian League
1754  French and Indian War begins; ends formally in 1763 in Treaty of Paris
1754  King's College, now Columbia University, founded
1754  Major Washington loses battle of Fort Necessity
1755  Braddock's defeat at Pittsburgh; Washington makes Lt Colonel
1755  Irish immigrant, Jackson, born at sea, will become 7th President
1757  Franklin goes to London for 17 year mission for the colonies
1757  D. P. Custis dies, leaves his "The White House" plantation to wife Martha
1758  James Monroe, 5th President, born in Virginia; dies in 1831
1759  George Washington weds Martha Custis, honeymoons at The White House
1759  General Wolfe v. Marquis de Montcalm on Plains of Abraham; both die
1760  Final subjugation of Canada by England
1760  George III becomes King of England.  Colonial population 1.6 million
1761  Writs of Assistance case tried in Boston
1762  Benjamin Franklin re-designs the harmonica, makes it a musical instrument
1762  Spain acquires Louisiana from France
1763  Pontiac begins seige of Detroit, now a British fort; incites other wars
1763  French and Indian War ends with Treaty of Paris signed Sept 3
1763  Treaty of Paris important because borders of United States established
1763  Also in Treaty of Paris, England gains Canada and French land east of MS
1763  Vigilantes known as Paxton Boys massacre peaceful Conestoga village
1763  John Jacob Astor born in Waldorf, Germany
1764  Mozart writes his first symphony, at age eight
1764  Saint Louis founded
1764  Molasses Act modified to produce revenue, in concert with Revenue Act
1764  Revenue Act.  Taxation without representation introduced in Boston
1764  Committee of Correspondence formed in Boston
1765  Britain tries to raise funds with The Stamp Act; Bostonians riot
1765  Stamp Act Congress meets in Albany, NY; first inter-colony Congress
1765  Quartering Act requires housing British troops in private homes
1765  Non-importation agreements arranged in principal colonies
1766  Stamp Act repealed by England in response to Colonial boycotts
1766  Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon draw the line at MD & PA border
1767  John Quincy Adams, 6th President, born July 11; dies 1848
1767  Daniel Boone crosses Appalachians, keeps heading west
1767  Townshend Duties pile it on higher and deeper, create Customs Office
1768  Colonies circulate letter complaining of taxation; Assemblies dissolved
1768  Birth of Tecumseh, near Dayton, OH
1768  New York Chamber of Commerce established
1768  British troops begin occupation of Boston
1769  David Rittenhouse begins astronomy studies
1769  Pontiac murdered by another Indian, near St. Louis
1770  Francisco de Ortega names discovery on west coast for his patron saint
1770  Ludwig van Beethoven born; dies in 1827
1770  Boston Massacre. Five dead, six wounded on March 5
1770  Townshend Acts repealed, except for that on tea
1771  Battle of Alamance fought in North Carolina
1772  Samuel Adams at Boston Town Hall Meeting publishes list of rights
1772  Customs schooner "Gaspee" burned off Namquit Point in Rhode Island
1772  John Sevier organizes independent republic of Watauga in Tennessee
1773  To save nearly bankrupt East India Company, Parliament tries a Tea Act
1773  Boston Tea Party. 342 chests of tea go into the drink December 16
1773  Wm. H. Harrison, 9th President, born Dec 5 in VA, moves to OH; d. 1841
1773  Perez at Nootka Sound, on Vancouver Island as we now know it
1774  Birth of John Chapman, to be known as Johnny Appleseed; dies 1845
1774  Intolerable Acts include the Coercive Acts
1774  British close the port of Boston in retaliation for tea party
1774  Virginia Conventions begin.  Lead to First Continental Congress
1774  First Continental Congress convenes, in Philadelphia, Sept 5
1774  Declaration and Resolves of First Continental Congress Oct 14
1774  The Quebec Act nullifies all colonial rights west of Ohio River
1775  Of the 3,500 pysicians in the colonies, only 400 are MD by degree
1775  Patrick Henry says "Give me liberty or give me death!"
1775  Fights at Lexington and Concord follow "the 18th of April, in '75"
1775  Battle of Breed's Hill mistakenly named after nearby Bunker Hill
1775  Postal system created.  Benjamin Franklin is first Director
1775  Second Continental Congress, again in Philadelphia
1775  Washington accepts promotion to General & Commander In Chief June 16
1775  Declaration on Taking Up of Arms issued by Continental Congress, July 6
1775  Lord Dunmore, Governor of Virginia, declares Martial Law November 7
1775  Virginians defeat British at Great Bridge; British bombard Norfolk
1776  General Court of Massachusetts fires Governor, requests he leave
1776  Common Sense written by Thomas Paine
1776  Virginia Declaration of Rights on June 12; written by George Mason
1776  Virginia State Constitution adopted June 29, will be model for all states
1776  Declaration of Independence drafted by Tom Jefferson, with John Adams
1776  Nathan Hale regrets having "but one life to lose", September 22
1776  Christmas present for Washington at Trenton: 918 German prisoners
1777  General Gates defeats General Burgoyne at Saratoga, NY
1777  Congress adopts the American flag with thirteen stars and stripes
1777  Washington's Continental Army winters at Valley Forge
1778  France declares war on England, becomes ally of America
1778  Englishman Capt. James Cook explores west coast of North America
1779  Captain Cook explores Sandwich Islands until Hawaiians murder him
1779  British surrender to Americans at Vincennes
1779  John Paul Jones, in Bon Homme Richard, defeats Pearson, in Serapis
1780  Death of John Logan, Cayuga Indian Chief.  Who will mourn for Logan?
1780  Benedict Arnold attempts to betray West Point
1781  Articles of Confederation go into effect; were drafted in 1777
1781  Cornwallis surrenders to Washington and the allies at Yorktown, VA
1782  Ninety-six Moravian Christian Indians massacred at Gnaddenhutton, OH
1782  First U. S. President born in "The United States" is Van Buren, Dec 5
1783  First daily newspaper is Pennsylvania Evening Post
1784  Benjamin Franklin invents bifocals
1784  Treaty of Ft. Stanwix; Iroquois cede rights north and west of Ohio R.
1784  Taylor, 12th President, born; dies 1850
1786  Shays's Rebellion in Massachusetts forcibly closes court systems
1786  Annapolis Convention concludes September 14, suggests Phila convention
1787  Constitutional Convention opens May 25; concludes business Sept 17
1787  Northwest Ordinance adopted July 13 by Continental Congress
1787  United States Constitution framed, sent to Congress and states
1787  Federalist Papers begin publication in newspapers
1788  New Hampshire is 9th state to ratify Constitution.  It is now the law
1788  First settlement in Ohio is Marietta, named for Marie Antoinette
1789  Mackenzie reaches Arctic Ocean via Mackenzie River in W. Canada
1789  French Revolution. Bastille falls Jul 14. Declaration of Rights Aug 26th
1789  George Washington & John Adams elected as first President & VP
1789  The Judiciary Act specifies numbers of Federal courts and judges
1789  Mutiny on the H.M.S. Bounty; survivors establish Pitcairn Is. colony
1790  Tyler, 10th President, born; dies 1862
1790  Death of Benjamin Franklin April 17
1790  First national census finds 3,929,214 persons eligible to be counted
1790  Supreme Court meets for the first time; John Jay is Chief Justice
1791  John Carroll of Baltimore made first Roman Catholic Bishop in U.S.A.
1791  Federal capital to be established in swamplands on the Potomac
1791  First ten Amendments are Bill of Rights that go into effect this year
1791  NWT Governor Arthur St. Clair soundly defeated by Indians near Ft. Wayne
1792  Captain Robert Gray names newly found river for his ship, Columbia
1792  Congress names the Dollar as our unit of currency; proposer: Jefferson
1792  Post Office established by Congress as a separate entity
1792  New York Stock Exchange organized
1792  Political parties formed; Republicans (to be Democrats) & Federalists
1793  Cotton gin invented by Eli Whitney
1793  General Anthony Wayne begins campaign against Indians in SW Ohio
1793  John Hancock dies October 8
1793  War between England and France.  U.S.A. declares neutrality
1793  Mackenzie reaches Pacific via Fraser River in western Canada
1794  Battle of Fallen Timbers, near Toledo, OH.  General Wayne v. Indians
1794  Jay's Treaty requires withdrawal of British troops from U.S.A.
1794  Whiskey Rebellion over excise tax in western Pennsylvania
1795  11th Amendment limits some Federal Judicial power somewhat
1795  Pinckney's Treaty with Spain opens navigation on Mississippi River
1795  Treaty of Greenville, OH opens up much of Ohio to settlement by whites
1795  Washington poses for Stuart's portrait, which is now on our dollar bill
1795  Polk, 11th President, born; dies 1849
1796  Washington retires, gives Farewell Address to the nation
1796  John Adams President, Tom Jefferson Vice President, 71-68 vote margin
1796  Moses Cleaveland reaches mouth of Cuyahoga River on July 22
1796  E Pluribus Unum: "Out of Many, One"; added to American coins
1798  Alien and Sedition Acts.  Soon to be repealed
1798  Department of the Navy established after 4 years of having a Navy
1798  Washington comes out of retirement to be Commander In Chief of Army
1798  XYZ Affair, so named after three anonymous French trouble makers
1799  French Revolution ends.  Napolean becomes ruler of France
1799  Patrick Henry dies June 6
1799  George Washington dies in Mount Vernon December 14, from quinsy
1800  House elects President Jefferson after electoral college tie with Burr
1800  Spain returns Louisiana to France
1800  Congress establishes Library of Congress
1800  Fillmore, 13th President, born; dies 1874
1801  John Marshall appointed as Chief Justice of the U. S. Supreme Court
1801  First stone building in Northwest Territory is Ohio capitol, Chillicothe
1801  Tripolitan War begins; ends in 1805 with USMC on the shores of Tripoli
1802  Treaty of Amiens, in March
1803  Louisiana Purchased April 30.  Lewis & Clark to begin exploration
1803  Ohio enters the Union.  Paperwork completed 1953
1803  Atomic theory first published
1804  Ohio University at Athens is first institute of higher learning in NWT
1804  12th Amendment changes Presidential election rules
1804  Osceola born in Tallassee village in Alabama; will lead 2nd Seminole War
1804  Vice President Aaron Burr kills Alexander Hamilton in duel July 11
1804  Pierce, 14th President, born; dies 1869
1805  Lewis & Clark discover mouth of Columbia River, just in time, on Nov 7
1807  Robert Fulton, in "Clermont", steams up Hudson River to Albany, Aug 17
1807  Congress outlaws importing slaves from Africa, March 2
1807  Treaty of Detroit; Wyandot Indians lose most of their real estate
1807  Embargo Act, Dec 22, forbids American ships to leave American waters
1808  Andrew Johnson, 17th President, born; dies 1875
1808  Slave importation outlawed.  Yet, another 1/4 million brought in by 1860
1809  Abraham Lincoln, 16th President, born in Kentucky February 12; dies 1865
1809  Non-Intercourse Act, Mar 1, repeals the Embargo Act, which didn't work
1810  Census counts 7,239,881 persons in United States
1811  Madison allows 20-year charter of Bank of the United States to lapse
1811  Wm. H. Harrison fights Indians at Tippecanoe, near Indianapolis, Nov 7
1811  New Madrid, MO earthquake Dec 16; forecast months before by Tecumseh
1812  War declared on England June 18, days after England repealed the cause
1812  John O'Mic hanged on Cleveland Public Square for killing 2 fur trappers
1812  Russians build Fort Rossiia (Ross) 90 miles north of San Francisco
1813  Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry "meets" British in Lake Erie Sept 10
1813  Tecumseh defeated in battle near Detroit, in Thames, Ontario
1814  City of Washington captured and burned by British, August 24
1814  Francis Scott Key observes flag over Fort McHenry at Baltimore, Sept 14
1814  Treaty of Ghent ends War of 1812 on December 24, but fighting goes on
1815  Andrew Jackson defeats British at New Orleans Jan 8, after war ends
1815  USS Constitution defeats two British ships off African coast 20 Feb
1815  Napolean meets his "Waterloo" on June 18
1815  Village of Cleaveland officially incorporated in Ohio
1816  Capitol of Ohio moves to Columbus
1816  Second Bank of the United States chartered, Apr 10
1817  Work begins on Erie Canal
1817  First American school for the deaf, Hartford, CT, Apr 14
1817  Secretary of State Rush and British Minister Bagot agree on Great Lakes
1818  Congress fixes stripes in flag at 13 to honor original colonies, Apr 4
1818  Anglo-American Convention fixes 49th parallel as border with Canada
1819  SS Savanah makes transatlantic crossing under steam propulsion, a first
1819  Florida ceded by Spain to the United States, Feb 22
1819  Treaty of Saginaw; Indians give up one sixth of Michigan
1820  Missouri Compromise forbids slavery above 36 degrees 30 minutes latitude
1820  Federalist Party dissolves; without opposition, Jefferson Dems disband
1822  Grant, 18th President, born in Ohio; dies 1885
1822  Hayes, 19th President, born in Ohio; dies 1893
1823  Monroe Doctrine given to Congress December 2
1824  House of Representatives elects John Q. Adams president
1825  Erie Canal completed
1826  Jefferson, then Adams, die on 50th anniversary of Declaration, July 4
1827  Ohio Canal opened for business
1828  Noah Webster publishes "American Dictionary of English Language", Apr 14
1828  George Worthington Co. founded in village of Cleaveland
1828  Baltimore & Ohio railroad, the first designed for passengers & freight
1829  Arthur, 21st President, born; dies 1886
1829  Estate of James Smithson funds Smithsonian Institution
1831  Samuel F. Smith writes "My Country, 'tis of Thee"
1831  Nat Turner leads slave revolt at Southhampton
1831  Garfield, 20th President (and 3rd in a row from Ohio), born; dies 1881
1832  Abe Lincoln enlists in Illinois militia to help fight Sauk & Fox Indians
1832  Jackson vetoes rechartering of 2nd Bank, causes birth of Whig Party
1832  Jackson supporters counter with rebirth of Jefferson Democratic Party
1833  Benjamin Harrison, 23rd President, born; dies 1901
1833  First tax-supported public library, at Peterborough, NH, Apr 9
1833  Oberlin College, in Ohio, is first coed college in U.S.A.
1833  City of Cleveland buys its first fire engine for $285
1834  Death of Lafayette, Revolutionary War hero on two continents
1834  Charles Babbage demonstrates "analytic engine", a computer
1835  U.S.A. becomes debt free (briefly) for only time in history
1836  The Alamo.  6000 Mexicans defeat 190 Americans in 12 days on March 6
1837  Grover Cleveland, 22nd and 24th President, born; dies 1908
1837  Sitting Bull born, dies in 1890
1837  Concord Hymn, by Emerson, commemorates battle of Concord NH in 1775
1838  Osceola dies in prison after being tricked by false white flag
1838  Trail of Tears.  Thousands of Indians forced from their homes & die (see more)
1838  Black Hawk, famous Sauk warrior, dies of old age
1839  Abner Doubleday invents baseball at Cooperstown, NY
1839  Railway Express Co. founded in Boston
1840  Chief Joseph born near Wallowa, OR.  Becomes great chief of Nez Perce'
1841  Wm. H. Harrison catches cold at Inauguration, dies a month later
1841  Russia sells their Fort Ross in California to John Sutter
1842  Crazy Horse born in South Dakota
1842  Plain Dealer Publishing Co. founded in Cleveland
1842  Webster-Ashburton Treaty defines Canadian-U.S. frontier, Aug 9
1843  McKinley, 25th President (5th from Ohio), born; dies 1901
1844  Samuel F. B. Morse opens telegraphic link between Baltimore and D.C.
1845  U. S. Naval Academy opens at Annapolis, MD
1845  Texas is annexed; war with Mexico follows
1846  Large crack in Liberty Bell gets too bad to permit ringing any more
1846  Potato famine in Ireland.  Many flee to America for survival
1847  Brigham Young leads his followers into Salt Lake City, UT area
1847  Thomas Alva Edison born in Milan, OH February 11; dies in 1931
1847  American troops fight their way into the Halls of Montezuma in Mexico
1848  Treaty of 1848 gets CA, NM, AZ, NV UT, parts of CO and WY for the Union
1848  Cornerstone laid for the Washington Monument
1849  There's  G O L D  in them thar hills!  Invasion of California begins
1849  Eastern Michigan University founded.
1850  Fugitive Slave Act, Sept. 18
1851  Isaac Singer granted a patent for his sewing machine
1853  Gadsden Purchase brings some Mexican territory into U.S.A.
1853  Commodore Matthew Perry opens trade routes with Japan, July 14
1853  Cincinnati is first city to pay firefighters a salary
1854  War between Cleveland and Ohio City settled by annexation of latter
1854  Kansas - Nebraska Act.  Provides springboard for Abe Lincoln
1854  Republican Party formed in Ripon, WI 28 February, under John Fremont
1854  George Boole writes on theories of logic and probabilities
1855  Soo Canal opens upper Great Lakes to commercial navigation
1855  Longfellow uses name of real Six Nation's hero Hiawatha in mythical poem
1856  Wilson, 28th President, born; dies 1924
1856  Western Union Telegraph Co. established in Cleveland
1856  Cocaine extracted from cocoa leaves, but has no legitimate use (ever!)
1857  Dred Scott decision handed down by Supreme Court, March 6
1857  Transatlantic cable begins; used briefly in 1858.  Replaced in 1866
1857  Taft, 27th President (7th from Ohio), born; dies 1930
1858  Theodore Roosevelt, 26th President, born; dies 1919
1859  Abolitionist John Brown leads assault on armory at Harper's Ferry
1859  Colonel Robert E. Lee, U. S. Army, commands troops at Harpers Ferry
1859  Drake puts down first oil well in U.S.A., Titusville, PA
1860  Annie Oakley born in Darke County, Ohio, log cabin, August 13
1860  Pony Express riders leave Sacramento, CA and St. Joseph, MO on 1st ride
1860  Edwin C. Higbee opens store on Cleveland Public Square
1860  South Carolina becomes first state to secede from Union, December 20
1861  Confederate States adopt Provisional Constitution, February 8
1861  Civil War begins at Fort Sumter, Charleston, SC, April 12
1861  Ohioan Generals Grant, Sherman and Sheridan ride off to war
1861  Congress enacts first income tax August 2, on incomes more than $800
1861  U. S. Navy's first aircraft carrier launches hot air balloon Aug 3
1861  First Congressional Medals of Honor awarded, to Union Navymen
1861  First transcontinental telegraph kills need for Pony Express
1862  The Homestead Act, May 20, contributes to development in ND, SD, and OK
1862  Duel between Merrimac and Monitor March 8; CSS Merrimac withdrew
1862  Battle of Shiloh, Apr 6
1862  Ohioans LTC R. B. Hayes and Sgt Wm. McKinley saw action at Antietam
1863  The Emancipation Proclamation
1863  The Gettysburg Address dedicated to more than two score thousand dead
1864  Lincoln posed for photograph which appears on $5 bill, Feb 9
1864  "In God We Trust" put on American coins for the first time April 22
1864  Massacre of Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians at Sand Creek, CO, Nov 29
1864  Lincoln proclaims last Thursday in November to be Thanksgiving Day
1865  13th amendment abolishes slavery
1865  Lee surrenders to Grant at Appomattox on Palm Sunday, April 9
1865  Lincoln shot by Boothe April 14, dies next day
1865  Confederate Army surrenders at Shreveport, LA; Civil War ends May 26
1865  Last shot of Civil War fired by CSS Shenandoah in Bering Sea, June 22
1865  Harding, 29th President (8th from Ohio), born; dies in 1923
1866  Ohio briefly adopts state motto: "Imperium in Imperio"
1866  Congress recognizes the Metric system of measurements
1866  Alfred Nobel invents something that is "dynamite"
1866  ASPCA organized, Apr 10
1866  First roller rink in the world opens at Newport, RI
1867  British North American Act creates the Dominion of Canada
1867  US buys Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million
1868  14th amendment prohibits voting discrimination, among other things
1868  House impeaches President Johnson.  Senate acquits him by one vote
1869  Transcontinental railroad completed; Ogden, UT wins the golden spike
1869  Cleveland's first professional baseball team is The Forest City's
1869  Suez Canal completed
1870  "Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea", in a nuclear submarine
1870  15th Amendment gives blacks the right to vote
1870  John D. Rockefeller founds Standard Oil Company, in Cleveland, OH
1870  Robert E. Lee dies, October 12
1871  Dr. B. F. Goodrich opens rubber factory in Akron, OH
1871  Mrs. O'Leary's cow blamed for Chicago fire, Oct 8-11
1872  Coolidge, 30th President, born; dies 1933
1872  Susan B. Anthony leads protest for women at polling place
1872  Yellowstone National Park created; our first of many (but too few)
1873  Bellevue Hospital in NYC starts first school of nursing
1874  Hoover, 31st President, born; dies 1964
1874  Guglielmo Marconi, radio pioneer, born April 25
1875  Gold discovered in the Sioux holy grounds, the Black Hills of SD
1875  First running of the Kentucky Derby at Churchhill Downs, May 17
1876  Custer makes his way into the history books at Little Big Horn in Montana
1876  Liberty statue presented by France, construction requires ten years
1876  Internal combustion engine invented by N. A. Otto (pronounced "auto")
1876  Does the name "Alexander Graham" ring a Bell?  Telephone invented
1877  Crazy Horse dies in a Nebraska prison from stab wounds
1878  First electric street lighting anywhere is on Cleveland Public Square
1878  First commercial telephone exchange is at New Haven, CT, Jan 28
1879  John D. Rockefeller organizes the Standard Oil Trust
1879  Charles McGill is last felon publicly hanged on Cleveland Public Square
1880  Case School of Applied Science established in Cleveland
1881  Booker T. Washington opens Tuskegee Institute for blacks
1881  Garfield assassinated.  Arthur moves into the presidency
1882  F. D. Roosevelt, 32nd President, born; dies 1945
1883  Indonesian volcano Krakatau blows it's top; 35,000 die
1883  Brooklyn Bridge completed May 24.  No, it is not for sale!
1884  Truman, 33rd President, born; dies 1972
1884  First "World Series" played
1886  Geronimo surrenders all Apache nations, September 4
1887  Susan Salter, Argonia, KS, is first woman mayor in U.S.A., Apr 4
1888  Electric streetcars introduced, in Richmond, VA
1889  Indian Territory becomes Oklahoma Territory, thrown open to landrushers
1889  First American skyscraper soars into Chicago skies, 10 stories
1889  Jefferson Davis dies at age 81 on December 6
1890  Eisenhower, 34th President, born; dies 1969
1890  First skyscraper in New York City is the World Building, 26 stories
1890  Massacre at Wounded Knee, SD, December 29
1890  Sherman Anti-Trust Act, July 2
1890  Leonidas Merritt discovers iron ore lode at Mesabi, MN
1892  First bridge to span the lower Mississippi river is at Memphis
1892  Rudolf Diesel invents internal combustion engine that runs on oil
1892  Pledge of Allegiance published.  Changes made in 1954
1893  "America the Beautiful" written by Katherine Lee Bates
1896  Plessy v. Ferguson establishes hated "separate but equal" provision
1898  USS Maine blown up in harbor at Havana, Cuba, February 15
1898  Spanish - American War.  Teddy Roosevelt rough-rides his way into Cuba
1898  Independent republic of Hawaii annexed
1900  Boxer Rebellion against foreigners in China begins
1901  McKinley assassinated, Theodore Roosevelt moves into presidency Sept 14
1902  State of Ohio authorizes a state flag on May 9
1902  First 4-H Club anywhere is in Springfield, OH
1903  Wright brothers prove they are right for aviation, Kitty Hawk, NC Dec 17
1903  Great automobile race from New York City to Pittsburgh takes eight days
1904  Chief Joseph dies in exile in Washington state, fighting no more, forever
1904  Ohio adopts Scarlet Carnation as state flower to honor McKinley
1906  Great San Francisco earthquake April 18 kills over 500 people
1908  First Model T rolls off the Ford assembly line
1908  U.S. Governors issue Declaration on Conservation, May 15
1908  L. B. Johnson, 36th President, born; dies 1973
1909  Great White Fleet of 16 battleships completes trip around the world
1909  Robert E. Peary (a white) & Matthew A. Henson (a black) reach North Pole
1909  NAACP founded by W. E. B. DuBois
1910  Boy Scouts of America founded, Feb 8
1911  First transcontinental flight takes 82 hours, over nearly 2 months
1911  Reagan, 40th President, born
1912  Girl Guides (Girl Scouts) founded March 12
1912  Garrett Morgan of Cleveland invents the gas mask
1912  Titanic hits iceberg, April 15.  1503 lives lost
1913  Harriet Tubman, heroine of underground railroad, dies; buried in Ohio
1913  Nixon, 37th President, born
1913  Ford, 38th President (1st non-elected), born
1913  16th Amendment establishes income tax
1913  17th Amendment changed election rules for Senators
1914  Panama Canal completed
1914  American Radio Relay League (ARRL) founded in Newington, CT by W1AW
1914  World War I begins in Europe; President Wilson declares neutrality
1915  SS Lusitania sunk May 7; 1100 lives lost
1916  General John "Blackjack" Pershing chases Pancho Villa deep into Mexico
1917  After scores of U-boat incidents over last 3 years, U. S. enters WW I
1917  Kennedy, 35th President, born; dies 1963
1917  Russian Revolution; they enjoy brief democracy for only time in history
1917  Father Edward Flanagan founds Boy's Town, December 1
1918  The American's Creed adopted April 3
1918  Armistice ends WW I on 11th hour of 11th day of 11th month
1919  18th Amendment introduces prohibition of intoxicating liquors
1920  19th Amendment brings women the vote, Aug 26
1921  Man O' War retires to 26 years at stud
1923  Garrett Morgan of Cleveland invents traffic signals
1923  Teapot Dome scandal involves illegal lease on Navy oil reserves
1924  Carter, 39th President, born
1924  Bush, 41st President, born
1924  Congress confers citizenship on (some) Native Americans, June 15
1925  First municipal airport in the world is Hopkins, at Cleveland, OH
1925  First female as a state governor is Nellie Taylor Ross, in Wyoming
1925  John T. Scopes convicted of teaching evolution in Dayton, TN, July 24
1926  Richard E. Byrd flies over North Pole May 9
1927  Lucky Lindy lands in Paris May 21 after non-stop flight from New York
1928  Richard E. Byrd flies over South Pole November 28
1929  St. Valentine's Day massacre in Chicago; rival bootleggers shoot it out
1929  Great Depression begins after bank and stock failures in October
1930  DuMont's television broadcast in NYC to private homes, August 20
1931  The National Anthem finally adopted by Congress March 3
1931  Empire State Building opens May 1
1932  20th Amendment established starting date for Presidency & Congress
1932  Welland Canal bypasses Niagara Falls for shipping
1933  First woman in Presidential Cabinet is Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins
1933  Emergency Banking Act, March 9
1933  Civilian Conservation Corps, March 31
1933  Federal Emergency Relief Act, Agriculture Adjustment Act, May 12
1933  Tennessee Valley Authority Act, May 18
1933  Farm Credit Act, June 16
1933  21st Amendment repeals prohibition amendment
1933  Ohio adopts the Cardinal as the "Official Bird"
1934  Securities and Exchange Commission created June 6
1935  Works Progress Administration approved by Congress, April 8
1935  Wagner-Connery Act establishes National Labor Relations Board, July 5
1935  Social Security Act, August 14
1937  Amelia Earhart Putnam disappears during attempt to fly around the world
1937  Adolph Hitler tells his generals of his plan to take over Europe, Nov 5
1939  Geological Surv. final report on cost of Louisiana Purchase $23.2 million
1939  After attacking other nations, Hitler starts WW II by attacking Poland
1939  Bill of Rights finally ratified by Massachusetts, Georgia & Connecticut
1941  Lend-Lease Act became law March 11
1941  Churchill & Roosvelt develop The Atlantic Charter, Aug 14 in Argentia
1941  December 7, the Day of Infamy, Japan bombed Pearl Harbor, HI
1942  Executive Order 9066 imprisons many thousands of Nisei for three years
1942  Jimmy Doolittle bombs Tokyo, flying B-25's from USS Hornet, April 18
1942  The Battle of the Coral Sea, May 7-8
1942  The Battle of Midway, June 4
1942  The Battles of Guadalcanal: ashore, August 7; at sea, Nov 12-15
1942  First self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction, by Fermi, December 2
1944  Landing at Anzio Beach by the Allies, January 22
1944  D-Day at Normandy!  The Longest Day begins, June 6
1944  The Battle of the Philippine Sea, June 19
1945  Marines raise the flag on Mount Suribachi, Iwo Jima, February 23
1945  First atomic bomb exploded anywhere is at Los Alamos, NM, July 16
1945  B-29 'Enola Gay' drops atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Aug 6
1945  Last atomic bomb then in existence dropped at Nagasaki, August 9
1945  World War II ends: first in Europe, May 7; then in Japan, Sept 2
1945  United Nations chartered in San Francisco; in 1950 moves to NYC
1946  Taft-Hartley Act outlaws certain practices of trade unions
1947  Truman Doctrine opposes Communism in Greece and elsewhere, Mar 12
1947  Marshall Plan helps rebuild Europe, June 5
1947  Transistor invented at Bell Labs, in New Jersey, Dec 23
1948  Foreign Assistance Act funds the Marshall Plan, April 3
1948  Organization of American States (OAS) formed, April 30
1948  United Nations creates Republic of Israel out of Palestine
1948  Berlin airlift begins nearly a year of relief to overcome blockade
1948  Native Americans allowed to vote (finally) in New Mexico and Arizona
1949  North Atlantic Treaty Organization born, April 4
1950  North Korea invades South Korea, June 25
1951  22nd Amendment limits president to two terms.  1st proposer: Jefferson
1953  Most "declared" hostilities end in Korea, 38th parallel becomes DMZ
1953  Ohio adopts the Buckeye as the "Official Tree"
1954  Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka overturns Plessy v. Ferguson
1954  Remington Rand sells a UNIVAC system to General Motors
1955  Dr. Jonas Salk proves his vaccine against polio virus is safe
1957  Sputnik
1959  Ohio adopts new Official Motto: "With God, All Things Are Possible"
1959  St. Lawrence Seaway opens the Great Lakes to foreign shipping, Apr 25
1960  23rd Amendment granted Electoral College representation to DC
1962  Ohioan John Glenn is first U. S. astronaut to orbit earth, Feb 20
1962  Military aid begins in South Vietnam
1963  Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. announces "I Have A Dream" on August 28
1963  John F. Kennedy assassinated, Johnson moves into presidency
1964  24th Amendment killed "poll taxes"
1964  Civil Rights Act put teeth in Federal enforcement of anti-discrimination
1964  Tonkin Gulf Resolution, Aug 24; repealed in 1970
1965  Ohio Flint adopted as the Official Gem Stone of the state
1967  25th Amendment allows President to step aside temporarily, then resume
1967  Thurgood Marshall is first black to become a justice on Supreme Court
1968  Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. murdered in Memphis
1969  Ohioan Neil Armstrong took one small step for a man, onto the moon
1971  26th amendment gives 18 year olds the vote
1972  Equal Rights Amendment proposed by Congress; never ratified by states
1973  Vice President Agnew forced to resign, Ford becomes 1st non-elected VP
1973  Roe et al v. Wade decision starts bitter abortion/anti-abortion debates
1974  Nixon resigns in disgrace, Ford moves into the presidency
1975  The fall of Saigon, South Vietnam
1980  Mount St. Helens volcano erupts
1981  First female Supreme Court Justice is Sandra Day O'Connor
1984  Geraldine Ferraro is first serious female Vice Presidential candidate
1986  First true community computer system goes online in Cleveland, Ohio
1986  Rutan and Yeager took a one-tank-trip around the world
1986  Shuttle "Challenger" exploded on takeoff, 7 astronauts perished
1987  Second Community computer goes online in Youngstown, Ohio
1989  Ohio adopts new words to official State Song
1989  Cleveland Free-Net II goes on line with 1.2 Gigabytes of storage
      Adds this Freedom Shrine to a long list of accomplishments
1990  More community computers in: Cincinnati, Peoria, Ill, and Medina Ohio
1990  Communist dominoes fall -- backwards!  World rejoices!


Prepared by Gerald Murphy (The Cleveland Free-Net - aa300) Distributed by the Cybercasting Services Division of the National Public Telecomputing Network (NPTN).

Permission is hereby granted to download, reprint, and/or otherwise redistribute this file, provided appropriate point of origin credit is given to the preparer(s) and the National Public Telecomputing Network.